During the last decades, the gut microbiota has gained much interest in relation to human health. Mounting evidence has shown a strict association between gut microbiota and obesity and its related diseases. Inflammation has been appointed as the driving force behind this association. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms by which gut microbiota might influence inflammation in the host could pave for the identification of effective strategies to reduce inflammation-related diseases, such as obesity and obesity-related diseases. For this purpose, we carried out an extensive literature search for studies published in the English language during the last 10 years. Most relevant studies were used to provide a comprehensive view of all aspects related to the association of gut microbiota and low-grade inflammation with obesity. Accordingly, this narrative review reports the evidence on the key players supporting the role of gut microbiota in the modulation of inflammation in relation to obesity and its complications. Moreover, therapeutic approaches to reduce microbiota-related inflammation are discussed to provide potential targets for future research.
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