Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that dietary factors may play a role in systemic low-grade chronic inflammation. Summary evidence from randomized controlled trials has shown substantial effects on biomarkers of inflammation following the adoption of plant-based diets (including, but not limited to, the Mediterranean diet), while consistent findings have been reported for higher intakes of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables and positive trends observed for the consumption of legumes, pulses, nuts, and olive oil. Among animal food groups, dairy products have been shown to have the best benefits on biomarkers of inflammation, while red meat and egg have been shown to have neutral effects. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms underlying the relation between dietary factors and immune system, with a focus on specific macronutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals (polyphenols) and low-grade inflammation. Substantial differences within each macronutrient group may explain the conflicting results obtained regarding foods high in saturated fats and carbohydrates, underlying the role of specific subtypes of molecules (i.e., short-chain fatty acids or fiber vs. long chain fatty acids or free added sugars) when exploring the relation between diet and inflammation, as well as the importance of the food matrix and the commixture of foods in the context of whole dietary patterns. Dietary polyphenols and oligopeptides have been hypothesized to exert several functions, including the regulation of the inflammatory response and effects on the immune system. Overall, evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the immune system regardless of obesity-related inflammation.

Anti-Inflammatory Nutrients and Obesity-Associated Metabolic-Inflammation: State of the Art and Future Direction

Laudisio, Daniela;Barrea, Luigi;Muscogiuri, Giovanna;Savastano, Silvia;Colao, Annamaria
2022

Abstract

Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that dietary factors may play a role in systemic low-grade chronic inflammation. Summary evidence from randomized controlled trials has shown substantial effects on biomarkers of inflammation following the adoption of plant-based diets (including, but not limited to, the Mediterranean diet), while consistent findings have been reported for higher intakes of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables and positive trends observed for the consumption of legumes, pulses, nuts, and olive oil. Among animal food groups, dairy products have been shown to have the best benefits on biomarkers of inflammation, while red meat and egg have been shown to have neutral effects. The present review provides an overview of the mechanisms underlying the relation between dietary factors and immune system, with a focus on specific macronutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals (polyphenols) and low-grade inflammation. Substantial differences within each macronutrient group may explain the conflicting results obtained regarding foods high in saturated fats and carbohydrates, underlying the role of specific subtypes of molecules (i.e., short-chain fatty acids or fiber vs. long chain fatty acids or free added sugars) when exploring the relation between diet and inflammation, as well as the importance of the food matrix and the commixture of foods in the context of whole dietary patterns. Dietary polyphenols and oligopeptides have been hypothesized to exert several functions, including the regulation of the inflammatory response and effects on the immune system. Overall, evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the immune system regardless of obesity-related inflammation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/894535
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