The number of cancers attributed to obesity is increasing over time. The mechanisms classically implicated in cancer pathogenesis and progression in patients with obesity involve adiposity-related alteration of insulin, sex hormones, and adipokine pathways. However, they do not fully capture the complexity of the association between obesity-related nutritional imbalance and cancer. Gut hormones are secreted by enteroendocrine cells along the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutritional cues, and act as nutrient sensors, regulating eating behavior and energy homeostasis and playing a role in immune-modulation. The dysregulation of gastrointestinal hormone physiology has been implicated in obesity pathogenesis. For their peculiar function, at the cross-road between nutrients intake, energy homeostasis and inflammation, gut hormones might represent an important but still underestimated mechanism underling the obesity-related high incidence of cancer. In addition, cancer research has revealed the widespread expression of gut hormone receptors in neoplastic tissues, underscoring their implication in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion processes that characterize tumor growth and aggressiveness. In this review, we hypothesize that obesity-related alterations in gut hormones might be implicated in cancer pathogenesis, and provide evidence of the pathways potentially involved.

Obesity-related gut hormones and cancer: novel insight into the pathophysiology

Pugliese, Gabriella;Bottiglieri, Filomena;Muscogiuri, Giovanna
;
Barrea, Luigi;Savastano, Silvia;Colao, Annamaria
2021

Abstract

The number of cancers attributed to obesity is increasing over time. The mechanisms classically implicated in cancer pathogenesis and progression in patients with obesity involve adiposity-related alteration of insulin, sex hormones, and adipokine pathways. However, they do not fully capture the complexity of the association between obesity-related nutritional imbalance and cancer. Gut hormones are secreted by enteroendocrine cells along the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutritional cues, and act as nutrient sensors, regulating eating behavior and energy homeostasis and playing a role in immune-modulation. The dysregulation of gastrointestinal hormone physiology has been implicated in obesity pathogenesis. For their peculiar function, at the cross-road between nutrients intake, energy homeostasis and inflammation, gut hormones might represent an important but still underestimated mechanism underling the obesity-related high incidence of cancer. In addition, cancer research has revealed the widespread expression of gut hormone receptors in neoplastic tissues, underscoring their implication in cell proliferation, migration, and invasion processes that characterize tumor growth and aggressiveness. In this review, we hypothesize that obesity-related alterations in gut hormones might be implicated in cancer pathogenesis, and provide evidence of the pathways potentially involved.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/894486
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