Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine cancer, and its prevalence continue to rise. Non-metastatic thyroid cancer patients are successfully treated. However, looking for new therapeutic strategies is of great importance for metastatic thyroid cancers that still lead to death. With respect to this, the tumor microenvironment (TME), which plays a key role in tumor progression, should be considered as a new promising therapeutic target to hamper thyroid cancer progression. Indeed, thyroid tumors consist of cancer cells and a heterogeneous and ever-changing niche, represented by the TME, which contributes to establishing most of the features of cancer cells. The TME consists of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, soluble factors, metabolites, blood and lymphatic tumor vessels and several stromal cell types that, by interacting with each other and with tumor cells, affect TME remodeling, cancer growth and progression. Among the thyroid TME components, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have gained more attention in the last years. Indeed, recent important evidence showed that thyroid CAFs strongly sustain thyroid cancer growth and progression by producing soluble factors and ECM proteins, which, in turn, deeply affect thyroid cancer cell behavior and aggressiveness. Hence, in this article, we describe the thyroid TME, focusing on the desmoplastic stromal reaction, which is a powerful indicator of thyroid cancer progression and an invasive growth pattern. In addition, we discuss the origins and features of the thyroid CAFs, their influence on thyroid cancer growth and progression, their role in remodeling the ECM and their immune-modulating functions. We finally debate therapeutic perspectives targeting CAFs.

Thyroid Cancer and Fibroblasts / Avagliano, Angelica; Fiume, Giuseppe; Bellevicine, Claudio; Troncone, Giancarlo; Venuta, Alessandro; Acampora, Vittoria; DE LELLA, Sabrina; Ruocco, MARIA ROSARIA; Masone, Stefania; Velotti, Nunzio; Carotenuto, Pietro; Mallardo, Massimo; Caiazza, Carmen; Montagnani, Stefania; Arcucci, Alessandro. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 14:(2022), pp. 1-14. [10.3390/cancers14174172]

Thyroid Cancer and Fibroblasts

Avagliano Angelica
;
Bellevicine Claudio;Troncone Giancarlo;Venuta Alessandro;De Lella Sabrina;Ruocco Maria Rosaria;Masone Stefania;Velotti Nunzio;Carotenuto Pietro;Mallardo Massimo;Caiazza Carmen;Montagnani Stefania;Arcucci Alessandro
2022

Abstract

Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine cancer, and its prevalence continue to rise. Non-metastatic thyroid cancer patients are successfully treated. However, looking for new therapeutic strategies is of great importance for metastatic thyroid cancers that still lead to death. With respect to this, the tumor microenvironment (TME), which plays a key role in tumor progression, should be considered as a new promising therapeutic target to hamper thyroid cancer progression. Indeed, thyroid tumors consist of cancer cells and a heterogeneous and ever-changing niche, represented by the TME, which contributes to establishing most of the features of cancer cells. The TME consists of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, soluble factors, metabolites, blood and lymphatic tumor vessels and several stromal cell types that, by interacting with each other and with tumor cells, affect TME remodeling, cancer growth and progression. Among the thyroid TME components, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have gained more attention in the last years. Indeed, recent important evidence showed that thyroid CAFs strongly sustain thyroid cancer growth and progression by producing soluble factors and ECM proteins, which, in turn, deeply affect thyroid cancer cell behavior and aggressiveness. Hence, in this article, we describe the thyroid TME, focusing on the desmoplastic stromal reaction, which is a powerful indicator of thyroid cancer progression and an invasive growth pattern. In addition, we discuss the origins and features of the thyroid CAFs, their influence on thyroid cancer growth and progression, their role in remodeling the ECM and their immune-modulating functions. We finally debate therapeutic perspectives targeting CAFs.
2022
Thyroid Cancer and Fibroblasts / Avagliano, Angelica; Fiume, Giuseppe; Bellevicine, Claudio; Troncone, Giancarlo; Venuta, Alessandro; Acampora, Vittoria; DE LELLA, Sabrina; Ruocco, MARIA ROSARIA; Masone, Stefania; Velotti, Nunzio; Carotenuto, Pietro; Mallardo, Massimo; Caiazza, Carmen; Montagnani, Stefania; Arcucci, Alessandro. - In: CANCERS. - ISSN 2072-6694. - 14:(2022), pp. 1-14. [10.3390/cancers14174172]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/894102
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