Diclofenac (DCF) is the most widely prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the world and it has been detected in drinking and surface waters. In this paper, the effect of chlorination process on DCF in aqueous solutions was investigated and the structures of 14 isolated degradation by-products (DPs), of which nine are new, have been determined from combining mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance data and justified by a proposed mechanism of formation beginning from the parent drug. Some degradation by-products show only one phenyl, others are dimers or trimers of the parental compound, which has undergone oxidative decarboxylation of the side chain and/or chlorination of this or one or both aromatic rings. Ecotoxicological bioassays evidenced the following sensitivities D. magna < R. subcapitata < A. fischeri. The isolated DPs (DP1−8, except for DP9) exhibited effects ≥ 50 % in the exposed microalgae and crustaceans showing toxicities mainly ranked from slight to acute.

Oxidation of diclofenac in water by sodium hypochlorite: Identification of new degradation by-products and their ecotoxicological evaluation / Luongo, G.; Guida, M.; Siciliano, A.; Libralato, G.; Saviano, L.; Amoresano, A.; Previtera, L.; Di Fabio, G.; Zarrelli, A.. - In: JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS. - ISSN 0731-7085. - 194:(2020), pp. 1-9. [10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113762]

Oxidation of diclofenac in water by sodium hypochlorite: Identification of new degradation by-products and their ecotoxicological evaluation

Luongo G.;Guida M.;Siciliano A.;Libralato G.;Saviano L.;Amoresano A.;Previtera L.;Di Fabio G.;Zarrelli A.
2020

Abstract

Diclofenac (DCF) is the most widely prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in the world and it has been detected in drinking and surface waters. In this paper, the effect of chlorination process on DCF in aqueous solutions was investigated and the structures of 14 isolated degradation by-products (DPs), of which nine are new, have been determined from combining mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance data and justified by a proposed mechanism of formation beginning from the parent drug. Some degradation by-products show only one phenyl, others are dimers or trimers of the parental compound, which has undergone oxidative decarboxylation of the side chain and/or chlorination of this or one or both aromatic rings. Ecotoxicological bioassays evidenced the following sensitivities D. magna < R. subcapitata < A. fischeri. The isolated DPs (DP1−8, except for DP9) exhibited effects ≥ 50 % in the exposed microalgae and crustaceans showing toxicities mainly ranked from slight to acute.
2020
Oxidation of diclofenac in water by sodium hypochlorite: Identification of new degradation by-products and their ecotoxicological evaluation / Luongo, G.; Guida, M.; Siciliano, A.; Libralato, G.; Saviano, L.; Amoresano, A.; Previtera, L.; Di Fabio, G.; Zarrelli, A.. - In: JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL ANALYSIS. - ISSN 0731-7085. - 194:(2020), pp. 1-9. [10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113762]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/893660
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