Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) belong to a heterogeneous class of environmental pollutants widely diffused in different aquatic and terrestrial habitats. This implies that humans and animals are continuously exposed to EDCs from different matrices and sources. Moreover, pollution derived from anthropic and industrial activities leads to combined exposure to substances with multiple mechanisms of action on the endocrine system and correlated cell and tissue targets. For this reason, specific organs, such as the prostate gland, which physiologically are under the control of hormones like androgens and estrogens, are particularly sensitive to EDC stimulation. It is now well known that an imbalance in hormonal regulation can cause the onset of various prostate diseases, from benign prostate hyperplasia to prostate cancer. In this review, starting with the description of normal prostate gland anatomy and embryology, we summarize recent studies reporting on how the multiple and simultaneous exposure to estrogenic and anti-androgenic compounds belonging to EDCs are responsible for an increase in prostate disease incidence in the human population.

Combined Effects of Different Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) on Prostate Gland

De Falco, Maria
Primo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Laforgia, Vincenza
Ultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
2021

Abstract

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) belong to a heterogeneous class of environmental pollutants widely diffused in different aquatic and terrestrial habitats. This implies that humans and animals are continuously exposed to EDCs from different matrices and sources. Moreover, pollution derived from anthropic and industrial activities leads to combined exposure to substances with multiple mechanisms of action on the endocrine system and correlated cell and tissue targets. For this reason, specific organs, such as the prostate gland, which physiologically are under the control of hormones like androgens and estrogens, are particularly sensitive to EDC stimulation. It is now well known that an imbalance in hormonal regulation can cause the onset of various prostate diseases, from benign prostate hyperplasia to prostate cancer. In this review, starting with the description of normal prostate gland anatomy and embryology, we summarize recent studies reporting on how the multiple and simultaneous exposure to estrogenic and anti-androgenic compounds belonging to EDCs are responsible for an increase in prostate disease incidence in the human population.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/893627
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