KBG syndrome is characterised by distinctive facial gestalt, short stature and variable clinical findings. With ageing, some features become more recognizable, allowing a differential diagnosis. We aimed to better characterise natural history of KBG syndrome. In the context of a European collaborative study, we collected the largest cohort of KBGS patients (49). A combined array-CGH and NGS approach investigated both genomic CNVs/SNVs. Intellectual disability (ID) (82%) ranged from mild to moderate with severe ID identified in two patients. Epilepsy was present in 26.5%. Short stature was consistent over time, while OFC (median value: -0.88 SD at birth) normalised over years. Cerebral anomalies, were identified in 56% of patients and thus represented the second most relevant clinical feature reinforcing clinical suspicion in the paediatric age when short stature and vertebral/dental anomalies are vague. Macrodontia, oligodontia, and dental agenesis (53%) were almost as frequent as skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly, short fifth finger, fifth finger clinodactyly, pectus excavatum/carinatum, delayed bone age. In 28.5% of individuals, prenatal ultrasound anomalies were reported. Except for three splicing variants, leading to a premature termination, variants were almost all frameshift. Our results, broadening the spectrum of KBGS phenotype progression, provide useful tools to facilitate differential diagnosis and improve clinical management. We suggest to consider a wider range of dental anomalies before excluding diagnosis and to perform a careful odontoiatric/ENT evaluation in order to look for even submucosal palate cleft given the high percentage of palate abnormalities. NGS approaches, following evidence of antenatal ultrasound anomalies, should include ANKRD11.

Natural history of KBG syndrome in a large European cohort

Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola;
2022

Abstract

KBG syndrome is characterised by distinctive facial gestalt, short stature and variable clinical findings. With ageing, some features become more recognizable, allowing a differential diagnosis. We aimed to better characterise natural history of KBG syndrome. In the context of a European collaborative study, we collected the largest cohort of KBGS patients (49). A combined array-CGH and NGS approach investigated both genomic CNVs/SNVs. Intellectual disability (ID) (82%) ranged from mild to moderate with severe ID identified in two patients. Epilepsy was present in 26.5%. Short stature was consistent over time, while OFC (median value: -0.88 SD at birth) normalised over years. Cerebral anomalies, were identified in 56% of patients and thus represented the second most relevant clinical feature reinforcing clinical suspicion in the paediatric age when short stature and vertebral/dental anomalies are vague. Macrodontia, oligodontia, and dental agenesis (53%) were almost as frequent as skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly, short fifth finger, fifth finger clinodactyly, pectus excavatum/carinatum, delayed bone age. In 28.5% of individuals, prenatal ultrasound anomalies were reported. Except for three splicing variants, leading to a premature termination, variants were almost all frameshift. Our results, broadening the spectrum of KBGS phenotype progression, provide useful tools to facilitate differential diagnosis and improve clinical management. We suggest to consider a wider range of dental anomalies before excluding diagnosis and to perform a careful odontoiatric/ENT evaluation in order to look for even submucosal palate cleft given the high percentage of palate abnormalities. NGS approaches, following evidence of antenatal ultrasound anomalies, should include ANKRD11.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/893575
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