Among nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) commonly found in seawater and wastewater, salicylic acid (SA) represents one of the most persistent and hazardous compounds for aquatic organisms. This study was therefore designed to elucidate the biological effects of SA in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. During a sub-chronic exposure (12 days), mussels were exposed to five realistic concentrations of SA (C1: 0.05 μg/L; C2: 0.5 μg/L; C3: 5 μg/L; C4: 50 μg/L; C5: 100 μg/L) and gills, selected as the target organ, were collected at different time points (T3: 3 days; T5: 5 days; T12: 12 days). Exposure to SA induced no histological alterations in mussel gills, despite a relevant hemocyte infiltration was observed throughout the exposure as a defensive response to SA. Temporal modulation of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities suggested the occurrence of antioxidant and detoxifying responses against SA exposure, while lipid peroxidation (LPO), except for a partial increase at T3, was prevented. Inhibition of the cholinergic system was also reported by reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, mainly at T12. Overall, findings from this study contribute to enlarge the current knowledge on the cytotoxicity of SA, on non-target aquatic organisms, and might for the enhancement of new ecopharmacovigilance programs and optimization of the efficacy of wastewater treatment plants for mitigation of pharmaceutical pollution in coastal areas.

Time- and dose-dependent biological effects of a sub-chronic exposure to realistic doses of salicylic acid in the gills of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

Guerriero, Giulia;
2022

Abstract

Among nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) commonly found in seawater and wastewater, salicylic acid (SA) represents one of the most persistent and hazardous compounds for aquatic organisms. This study was therefore designed to elucidate the biological effects of SA in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. During a sub-chronic exposure (12 days), mussels were exposed to five realistic concentrations of SA (C1: 0.05 μg/L; C2: 0.5 μg/L; C3: 5 μg/L; C4: 50 μg/L; C5: 100 μg/L) and gills, selected as the target organ, were collected at different time points (T3: 3 days; T5: 5 days; T12: 12 days). Exposure to SA induced no histological alterations in mussel gills, despite a relevant hemocyte infiltration was observed throughout the exposure as a defensive response to SA. Temporal modulation of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities suggested the occurrence of antioxidant and detoxifying responses against SA exposure, while lipid peroxidation (LPO), except for a partial increase at T3, was prevented. Inhibition of the cholinergic system was also reported by reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, mainly at T12. Overall, findings from this study contribute to enlarge the current knowledge on the cytotoxicity of SA, on non-target aquatic organisms, and might for the enhancement of new ecopharmacovigilance programs and optimization of the efficacy of wastewater treatment plants for mitigation of pharmaceutical pollution in coastal areas.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/893428
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