Purpose: Heart failure (HF) is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with significant impact on life quality and extensive healthcare costs. Assessment of myocardial sympathetic innervation function plays a central role in prognosis assessment in HF patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent evidence regarding the clinical applications of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) imaging in patients with HF and related comorbidities. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed and Web of Science databases. Articles describing the impact of 123I-MIBG imaging on HF and related comorbidities were considered eligible for the review. Results: We collected several data reporting that 123I-MIBG imaging is a safe and non-invasive tool to evaluate dysfunction of cardiac sympathetic neuronal function and to assess risk stratification in HF patients. HF is frequently associated with comorbidities that may affect cardiac adrenergic innervation. Furthermore, HF is frequently associated with comorbidities and chronic conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, kidney disease and others, that may affect cardiac adrenergic innervation. Conclusion: Comorbidities and chronic conditions lead to more severe impairment of sympathetic nervous system in patients with HF, with a negative impact on disease progression and outcome. Cardiac imaging with 123I-MIBG can be a useful tool to reduce morbidity and prevent adverse events in HF patients.
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