Objective. To measure the monoenergetic x-ray linear attenuation coefficient, μ, of fused deposition modeling (FDM) colored 3D printing materials (ABS, PLAwhite, PLAorange, PET and NYLON), used as adipose, glandular or skin tissue substitutes for manufacturing physical breast phantoms. Approach. Attenuation data (at 14, 18, 20, 24, 28, 30 and 36 keV) were acquired at Elettra synchrotron radiation facility, with step-wedge objects, using the Lambert–Beer law and a CCD imaging detector. Test objects were 3D printed using the Ultimaker 3 FDM printer. PMMA, Nylon-6 and high-density polyethylene step objects were also investigated for the validation of the proposed methodology. Printing uniformity was assessed via monoenergetic and polyenergetic imaging (32 kV, W/Rh). Main results. Maximum absolute deviation of μ for PMMA, Nylon-6 and HD-PE was 5.0%, with reference to literature data. For ABS and NYLON, μ differed by less than 6.1% and 7.1% from that of adipose tissue, respectively; for PET and PLAorange the difference was less than 11.3% and 6.3% from glandular tissue, respectively. PLAorange is a good substitute of skin (differences from −9.4% to +1.2%). Hence, ABS and NYLON filaments are suitable adipose tissue substitutes, while PET and PLAorange mimick the glandular tissue. PLAwhite could be printed at less than 100% infill density for matching the attenuation of glandular tissue, using the measured density calibration curve. The printing mesh was observed for sample thicknesses less than 60 mm, imaged in the direction normal to the printing layers. Printing dimensional repeatability and reproducibility was less 1%. Significance. For the first time an experimental determination was provided of the linear attenuation coefficient of common 3D printing filament materials with estimates of μ at all energies in the range 14–36 keV, for their use in mammography, breast tomosynthesis and breast computed tomography investigations.

Attenuation coefficient in the energy range 14-36 {keV} of 3D printing materials for physical breast phantoms

Giovanni Mettivier;Antonio Sarno;Paolo Russo
2022

Abstract

Objective. To measure the monoenergetic x-ray linear attenuation coefficient, μ, of fused deposition modeling (FDM) colored 3D printing materials (ABS, PLAwhite, PLAorange, PET and NYLON), used as adipose, glandular or skin tissue substitutes for manufacturing physical breast phantoms. Approach. Attenuation data (at 14, 18, 20, 24, 28, 30 and 36 keV) were acquired at Elettra synchrotron radiation facility, with step-wedge objects, using the Lambert–Beer law and a CCD imaging detector. Test objects were 3D printed using the Ultimaker 3 FDM printer. PMMA, Nylon-6 and high-density polyethylene step objects were also investigated for the validation of the proposed methodology. Printing uniformity was assessed via monoenergetic and polyenergetic imaging (32 kV, W/Rh). Main results. Maximum absolute deviation of μ for PMMA, Nylon-6 and HD-PE was 5.0%, with reference to literature data. For ABS and NYLON, μ differed by less than 6.1% and 7.1% from that of adipose tissue, respectively; for PET and PLAorange the difference was less than 11.3% and 6.3% from glandular tissue, respectively. PLAorange is a good substitute of skin (differences from −9.4% to +1.2%). Hence, ABS and NYLON filaments are suitable adipose tissue substitutes, while PET and PLAorange mimick the glandular tissue. PLAwhite could be printed at less than 100% infill density for matching the attenuation of glandular tissue, using the measured density calibration curve. The printing mesh was observed for sample thicknesses less than 60 mm, imaged in the direction normal to the printing layers. Printing dimensional repeatability and reproducibility was less 1%. Significance. For the first time an experimental determination was provided of the linear attenuation coefficient of common 3D printing filament materials with estimates of μ at all energies in the range 14–36 keV, for their use in mammography, breast tomosynthesis and breast computed tomography investigations.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/892907
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