Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease causing damage to the macular region of the retina where most of the photoreceptors responsible for central visual acuity are located. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate genes by silent post-transcriptional gene expressions. Previous studies have shown that changes in specific miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of eye diseases, including AMD. Altered expressions of miRNAs are related to disturbances of regulating oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and phagocytosis, which are known factors in the pathogenesis of AMD. Moreover, dysregulation of miRNA is involved in drusen formation. Thus, miRNAs may be used as potential molecular biomarkers for the disease and, furthermore, tailoring therapeutics to particular disturbances in miRNAs may, in the future, offer hope to prevent irreversible vision loss. In this review, we clarify the current state of knowledge about the influence of miRNA on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of AMD. Our study material consisted of publications, which were found in PubMed, Google Scholar and Embase databases using "Age-related macular degeneration", "miRNA", "AMD biomarkers", "miRNA therapeutics" and "AMD pathogenesis" as keywords. Paper search was limited to articles published from 2011 to date. In the section "Retinal, circulating and vitreous body miRNAs found in human studies", we limited the search to studies with patients published in 2016-2021.

The Role of Dysregulated miRNAs in the Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Toro M. D.;
2022

Abstract

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease causing damage to the macular region of the retina where most of the photoreceptors responsible for central visual acuity are located. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate genes by silent post-transcriptional gene expressions. Previous studies have shown that changes in specific miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of eye diseases, including AMD. Altered expressions of miRNAs are related to disturbances of regulating oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and phagocytosis, which are known factors in the pathogenesis of AMD. Moreover, dysregulation of miRNA is involved in drusen formation. Thus, miRNAs may be used as potential molecular biomarkers for the disease and, furthermore, tailoring therapeutics to particular disturbances in miRNAs may, in the future, offer hope to prevent irreversible vision loss. In this review, we clarify the current state of knowledge about the influence of miRNA on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of AMD. Our study material consisted of publications, which were found in PubMed, Google Scholar and Embase databases using "Age-related macular degeneration", "miRNA", "AMD biomarkers", "miRNA therapeutics" and "AMD pathogenesis" as keywords. Paper search was limited to articles published from 2011 to date. In the section "Retinal, circulating and vitreous body miRNAs found in human studies", we limited the search to studies with patients published in 2016-2021.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/892715
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