The anthropogenic particulate matter (PM), suspended air dust that can be inhaled by humans and deposited in the lungs, is one of the main pollutants in the industrialized cities atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that PM has adverse effects on respiratory diseases. These effects are mainly due to the ultrafine particles (PM0.1, PM < 100 nm), which, thanks to their PM size, are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions. Pulmonary macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population distributed in different lung compartments, whose role in inflammatory response to injury is of particular relevance. In this study, we investigated the effect of PM0.1 on Human Lung Macrophages (HLMs) activation evaluated as proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine release, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and intracellular Ca2+concentration ([Ca2+]i). Furthermore, PM0.1, after removal of organic fraction, was fractionated in nanoparticles both smaller (NP20) and bigger (NP100) than 20 nm by a properlydeveloped analytical protocol, allowed isolating their individual contribution. Interestingly, while PM0.1 and NP20 induced stimulatory effects on HLM cytokines release, NP100 had not effect. In particular, PM0.1 induced IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, but not CXCL8, release from HLMs. Moreover, PM0.1, NP20 and NP100 did not induce β-glucuronidase release, a preformed mediator contained in HLMs. The long time necessary for cytokines release (18 h) suggested that PM0.1 and NP20 could induce ex-novo production of the tested mediators. Accordingly, after 6 h of incubation, PM0.1 and NP20 induced mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β. Moreover, NP20 induced ROS production and [Ca2+]i increase in a time-dependent manner, without producing cytotoxicity. Collectively, the present data highlight the main proinflammatory role of NP20 among PM fractions. This is particularly of concern because this fraction is not currently covered by legal limits as it is not easily measured at the exhausts by the available technical methodologies, suggesting that it is mandatory to search for new monitoring techniques and strategies for limiting NP20 formation.

Size-based effects of anthropogenic ultrafine particles on activation of human lung macrophages

Marcella, Simone;Secondo, Agnese
Co-primo
;
Tedeschi, Valentina;Ferrara, Anne Lise;Rosaria Galdiero, Maria;Cristinziano, Leonardo;Spadaro, Giuseppe;Loffredo, Stefania
2022

Abstract

The anthropogenic particulate matter (PM), suspended air dust that can be inhaled by humans and deposited in the lungs, is one of the main pollutants in the industrialized cities atmosphere. Recent studies have shown that PM has adverse effects on respiratory diseases. These effects are mainly due to the ultrafine particles (PM0.1, PM < 100 nm), which, thanks to their PM size, are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions. Pulmonary macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population distributed in different lung compartments, whose role in inflammatory response to injury is of particular relevance. In this study, we investigated the effect of PM0.1 on Human Lung Macrophages (HLMs) activation evaluated as proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine release, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production and intracellular Ca2+concentration ([Ca2+]i). Furthermore, PM0.1, after removal of organic fraction, was fractionated in nanoparticles both smaller (NP20) and bigger (NP100) than 20 nm by a properlydeveloped analytical protocol, allowed isolating their individual contribution. Interestingly, while PM0.1 and NP20 induced stimulatory effects on HLM cytokines release, NP100 had not effect. In particular, PM0.1 induced IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, but not CXCL8, release from HLMs. Moreover, PM0.1, NP20 and NP100 did not induce β-glucuronidase release, a preformed mediator contained in HLMs. The long time necessary for cytokines release (18 h) suggested that PM0.1 and NP20 could induce ex-novo production of the tested mediators. Accordingly, after 6 h of incubation, PM0.1 and NP20 induced mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β. Moreover, NP20 induced ROS production and [Ca2+]i increase in a time-dependent manner, without producing cytotoxicity. Collectively, the present data highlight the main proinflammatory role of NP20 among PM fractions. This is particularly of concern because this fraction is not currently covered by legal limits as it is not easily measured at the exhausts by the available technical methodologies, suggesting that it is mandatory to search for new monitoring techniques and strategies for limiting NP20 formation.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
1-s2.0-S0160412022003221-main.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: Dominio pubblico
Dimensione 1.83 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.83 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/891061
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact