The specification of the endostyle in non-vertebrate chordates and of the thyroid gland in vertebrates are fundamental steps in the evolution of the thyroid hormone (TH) signaling to coordinate development and body physiology in response to a range of environmental signals. The physiology and biology of TH signaling in vertebrates have been studied in the past, but a complete understanding of such a complex system is still lacking. Non-model species from non-vertebrate chordates may greatly improve our understanding of the evolution of this complex endocrine pathway. Adaptation of already existing proteins in order to perform new roles is a common feature observed during the course of evolution. Through sequence similarity approaches, we investigated the presence of bona fide thyroid peroxidase (TPO), iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO), and thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) in non-vertebrate and vertebrate chordates. Additionally, we determined both the conservation and divergence degrees of functional domains at the protein level. This study supports the hypothesis that non-vertebrate chordates have a functional thyroid hormone signaling system and provides additional information about its possible evolutionary adaptation.

Evolutionary adaptation of the thyroid hormone signaling toolkit in chordates

Esposito A;Ambrosino L;Piazza S;Chiusano ML;
2021

Abstract

The specification of the endostyle in non-vertebrate chordates and of the thyroid gland in vertebrates are fundamental steps in the evolution of the thyroid hormone (TH) signaling to coordinate development and body physiology in response to a range of environmental signals. The physiology and biology of TH signaling in vertebrates have been studied in the past, but a complete understanding of such a complex system is still lacking. Non-model species from non-vertebrate chordates may greatly improve our understanding of the evolution of this complex endocrine pathway. Adaptation of already existing proteins in order to perform new roles is a common feature observed during the course of evolution. Through sequence similarity approaches, we investigated the presence of bona fide thyroid peroxidase (TPO), iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO), and thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) in non-vertebrate and vertebrate chordates. Additionally, we determined both the conservation and divergence degrees of functional domains at the protein level. This study supports the hypothesis that non-vertebrate chordates have a functional thyroid hormone signaling system and provides additional information about its possible evolutionary adaptation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/890769
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