Mechanical forces, acting on eukaryotic cells, are responsible for cell shape, cell proliferation, cell polarity, and cell differentiation thanks to two cells abilities known as mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. Mechanosensing consists of the ability of a cell to sense mechanical cues, while mechanotransduction is the capacity of a cell to respond to these signals by translating mechanical stimuli into biochemical ones. These signals propagate from the extracellular matrix to the nucleus with different well known physical connections, but how the mechanical signals are transduced into biochemical ones remains an open challenge. Recent findings showed that the cell-generated forces affect the translocation of transcription factors (TFs) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. This mechanism is affected by the features of nuclear pore complexes. Owing to the complex patterns of strains and stresses of the nuclear envelope caused by cytoskeletal forces, it is likely that the morphology of NPC changes as cytoskeleton assemblies’ change. This may ultimately affect molecular transport through the nucleus, hence altering cell functions. Among the various TFs, Yes-associated protein (YAP), which is typically involved in cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, is able to activate specific pathways when entrapped into the cell nucleus. Here, starting from experimental results, we develop a multiscale finite element (FE) model aimed to simulate the macroscopic cell spreading and consequent changes in the cell mechanical behaviour to be related to the NPCs changes and YAP nuclear transport.

A role for nuclear stretching and NPCs changes in the cytoplasmic-nuclear trafficking of YAP: An experimental and numerical modelling approach

Stefania Saporito
Primo
;
Costantino Menna;Paolo Antonio Netti
Penultimo
;
Maurizio Ventre
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Mechanical forces, acting on eukaryotic cells, are responsible for cell shape, cell proliferation, cell polarity, and cell differentiation thanks to two cells abilities known as mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. Mechanosensing consists of the ability of a cell to sense mechanical cues, while mechanotransduction is the capacity of a cell to respond to these signals by translating mechanical stimuli into biochemical ones. These signals propagate from the extracellular matrix to the nucleus with different well known physical connections, but how the mechanical signals are transduced into biochemical ones remains an open challenge. Recent findings showed that the cell-generated forces affect the translocation of transcription factors (TFs) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. This mechanism is affected by the features of nuclear pore complexes. Owing to the complex patterns of strains and stresses of the nuclear envelope caused by cytoskeletal forces, it is likely that the morphology of NPC changes as cytoskeleton assemblies’ change. This may ultimately affect molecular transport through the nucleus, hence altering cell functions. Among the various TFs, Yes-associated protein (YAP), which is typically involved in cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, is able to activate specific pathways when entrapped into the cell nucleus. Here, starting from experimental results, we develop a multiscale finite element (FE) model aimed to simulate the macroscopic cell spreading and consequent changes in the cell mechanical behaviour to be related to the NPCs changes and YAP nuclear transport.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/890542
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