The intestines are recognized as the main source of chronic inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and, among other cells, macrophages are involved in modulating this process as well as in the impaired immune response which also occurs in CKD patients. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Indoxyl Sulfate (IS), a protein bound uremic toxin poorly eliminated by hemodialysis, on inflammatory, oxidative stress and pro-apoptotic parameters, at the intestinal level in mice, on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and on primary murine peritoneal macrophages. C57BL/6J mice were treated with IS (800 mg/kg i.p.) for 3 or 6 h and histopathological analysis showed that IS induced intestinal inflammation and increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitrotyrosine and Bax expression in intestinal tissue. In IEC-6 cells, IS (125-1000 µM) increased tumor necrosis factor-α levels, COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitrotyrosine formation. Moreover, IS increased pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic parameters in peritoneal macrophages from IS-treated mice. Also, the serum concentration of IS and pro-inflammatory levels of cytokines resulted increased in IS-treated mice. Our results indicate that IS significantly contributes to affect intestinal homeostasis, immune response, and to induce a systemic pro-inflammatory state thus highlighting its potential role as therapeutic target in CKD patients.

Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Indoxyl Sulfate in Mice: Impairment of Intestinal Homeostasis and Immune Response

Prisco, Francesco
Secondo
Methodology
;
Iovane, Valentina
Methodology
;
Paciello, Orlando
Conceptualization
;
2021

Abstract

The intestines are recognized as the main source of chronic inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and, among other cells, macrophages are involved in modulating this process as well as in the impaired immune response which also occurs in CKD patients. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Indoxyl Sulfate (IS), a protein bound uremic toxin poorly eliminated by hemodialysis, on inflammatory, oxidative stress and pro-apoptotic parameters, at the intestinal level in mice, on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and on primary murine peritoneal macrophages. C57BL/6J mice were treated with IS (800 mg/kg i.p.) for 3 or 6 h and histopathological analysis showed that IS induced intestinal inflammation and increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitrotyrosine and Bax expression in intestinal tissue. In IEC-6 cells, IS (125-1000 µM) increased tumor necrosis factor-α levels, COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitrotyrosine formation. Moreover, IS increased pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic parameters in peritoneal macrophages from IS-treated mice. Also, the serum concentration of IS and pro-inflammatory levels of cytokines resulted increased in IS-treated mice. Our results indicate that IS significantly contributes to affect intestinal homeostasis, immune response, and to induce a systemic pro-inflammatory state thus highlighting its potential role as therapeutic target in CKD patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/890335
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