The large-scale Chuankou W deposit is located in the north part of the Nanling metallogenic belt, South China. It comprises independent quartz vein-type scheelite and wolframite mineralization, both associated with the underlying granitic intrusion spatially. The scheelite-bearing quartz veins occur invariably in sandstone and slate to the west, whereas the wolframite-bearing quartz veins are mainly hosted by the granite to the east. To reveal the fluid characteristics of the two mineralizing vein systems, detailed petrography, microthermometry, and Raman spectroscopic analyses were carried out on fluid inclusions in scheelite, wolframite and their coexisting quartz. Major and trace element concentrations of fluids were obtained from individual fluid inclusions in quartz via LA-ICP-MS analysis. Wall-rock alteration of both vein systems were evaluated by TESCAN Integrated Mineral Analyser (TIMA) analysis, and based on which the bulk geochemical data of wall-rock as a function of distance from the vein were obtained for scheelite-bearing quartz vein. These data aid elucidation on the nature of fluids in the two types of W mineralization. Fluid inclusions in quartz and its coexisting tungsten minerals share similar homogenization temperature and salinity, suggesting near concurrent formation of quartz and ore minerals. LA-ICP-MS analyses on pseudosecondary fluid inclusions in quartz associated with ore minerals show considerable concentrations of W in both mineralizing fluids, whereas Fe, Mn and Ca are generally absent irrespective of their higher detection limits. This may imply that Ca, Fe, and Mn were not initially derived from the granitic magma. The fluid compositions of both types of W mineralization display similar Rb/Na, K/Na, and Rb/Cs ratios, indicating a similar initial fluid source. The TIMA image shows that the host rock (sandstone) of scheelite-bearing quartz vein contains abundant Ca-rich minerals, such as apatite and calcium feldspar, indicating wall-rock as potential source providing Ca for the precipitation of scheelite. This assumption is strongly supported by bulk geochemical data of wall rock as a function of distance from hydrothermal quartz vein. In contrast, the tourmaline-rich granite hosting wolframite quartz veins may be a potential source of Fe for the precipitation of wolframite. Study on fluid composition combined with wall rock alteration suggest that the magmatic-sourced fluids and fluid–wall-rock interactions exerted primary control on the large-scale variations in mineralization types in the deposit, with scheelite- and wolframite-bearing quartz veins being both genetically and spatially related. Results of this study provide new guidelines for mineral exploration, suggesting a homologous scheelite-dominated deposit being likely to exist in association with a wolframite-dominated deposit, where the lithology of Ca-bearing formations may indicate potential prospecting areas.

Co-genetic formation of scheelite- and wolframite-bearing quartz veins in the Chuankou W deposit, South China: Evidence from individual fluid inclusion and wall-rock alteration analysis

Stefano Albanese
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2022

Abstract

The large-scale Chuankou W deposit is located in the north part of the Nanling metallogenic belt, South China. It comprises independent quartz vein-type scheelite and wolframite mineralization, both associated with the underlying granitic intrusion spatially. The scheelite-bearing quartz veins occur invariably in sandstone and slate to the west, whereas the wolframite-bearing quartz veins are mainly hosted by the granite to the east. To reveal the fluid characteristics of the two mineralizing vein systems, detailed petrography, microthermometry, and Raman spectroscopic analyses were carried out on fluid inclusions in scheelite, wolframite and their coexisting quartz. Major and trace element concentrations of fluids were obtained from individual fluid inclusions in quartz via LA-ICP-MS analysis. Wall-rock alteration of both vein systems were evaluated by TESCAN Integrated Mineral Analyser (TIMA) analysis, and based on which the bulk geochemical data of wall-rock as a function of distance from the vein were obtained for scheelite-bearing quartz vein. These data aid elucidation on the nature of fluids in the two types of W mineralization. Fluid inclusions in quartz and its coexisting tungsten minerals share similar homogenization temperature and salinity, suggesting near concurrent formation of quartz and ore minerals. LA-ICP-MS analyses on pseudosecondary fluid inclusions in quartz associated with ore minerals show considerable concentrations of W in both mineralizing fluids, whereas Fe, Mn and Ca are generally absent irrespective of their higher detection limits. This may imply that Ca, Fe, and Mn were not initially derived from the granitic magma. The fluid compositions of both types of W mineralization display similar Rb/Na, K/Na, and Rb/Cs ratios, indicating a similar initial fluid source. The TIMA image shows that the host rock (sandstone) of scheelite-bearing quartz vein contains abundant Ca-rich minerals, such as apatite and calcium feldspar, indicating wall-rock as potential source providing Ca for the precipitation of scheelite. This assumption is strongly supported by bulk geochemical data of wall rock as a function of distance from hydrothermal quartz vein. In contrast, the tourmaline-rich granite hosting wolframite quartz veins may be a potential source of Fe for the precipitation of wolframite. Study on fluid composition combined with wall rock alteration suggest that the magmatic-sourced fluids and fluid–wall-rock interactions exerted primary control on the large-scale variations in mineralization types in the deposit, with scheelite- and wolframite-bearing quartz veins being both genetically and spatially related. Results of this study provide new guidelines for mineral exploration, suggesting a homologous scheelite-dominated deposit being likely to exist in association with a wolframite-dominated deposit, where the lithology of Ca-bearing formations may indicate potential prospecting areas.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/890232
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