One of the main drawbacks of using biomass as pyrolysis feedstock consists of the huge variability of the different biomass resources which undermines the viability of downstream processes. Inherent inorganic elements greatly contribute to enhance the compositional variability issues due to their catalytic effect (especially alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs)) and the technical problems arising due to their presence. Due to the different pretreatments adopted in the experimental investigations as well as the different reactor configurations and experimental conditions, some mechanisms involving interactions between these elements and the biomass organic fraction during pyrolysis are still debated. This is the reason why predicting the results of these interactions by adapting the existing kinetic models of pyrolysis is still challenging. In this work, the most prominent experimental works of the last 10 years dealing with the catalytic effects of biomass inherent metals on the pyrolysis process are reviewed. Reaction pathways, products distributions and characteristics, and impacts on the products utilization are discussed with a focus on AAEMs and on potential toxic metallic elements in hyperaccumulator plants. The literature findings are discussed in relation to the applied laboratory procedures controlling the concentration of inherent inorganic elements, their capability of preserving the chemical integrity of the main organic components, and the ability of resembling the inherent inorganic elements in the raw biomass. The goal is to reveal possible experimental inconsistencies and to provide a clear scheme of the reaction pathways altered by the presence of inherent inorganics. This analysis paves the way for the examination of the proposed modifications of the existing models aiming at capturing the effect of inorganics on pyrolysis kinetics. Finally, the most relevant shortcomings and bottlenecks in existing experimental and modeling approaches are analyzed and directions for further studies are suggested.

Inherent Metal Elements in Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review / Giudicianni, P.; Gargiulo, V.; Grottola, C. M.; Alfe, M.; Ferreiro, A. I.; Mendes, M. A. A.; Fagnano, M.; Ragucci, R.. - In: ENERGY & FUELS. - ISSN 0887-0624. - 35:7(2021), pp. 5407-5478. [10.1021/acs.energyfuels.0c04046]

Inherent Metal Elements in Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

Giudicianni P.
Conceptualization
;
Gargiulo V.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Grottola C. M.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Fagnano M.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Ragucci R.
Membro del Collaboration Group
2021

Abstract

One of the main drawbacks of using biomass as pyrolysis feedstock consists of the huge variability of the different biomass resources which undermines the viability of downstream processes. Inherent inorganic elements greatly contribute to enhance the compositional variability issues due to their catalytic effect (especially alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs)) and the technical problems arising due to their presence. Due to the different pretreatments adopted in the experimental investigations as well as the different reactor configurations and experimental conditions, some mechanisms involving interactions between these elements and the biomass organic fraction during pyrolysis are still debated. This is the reason why predicting the results of these interactions by adapting the existing kinetic models of pyrolysis is still challenging. In this work, the most prominent experimental works of the last 10 years dealing with the catalytic effects of biomass inherent metals on the pyrolysis process are reviewed. Reaction pathways, products distributions and characteristics, and impacts on the products utilization are discussed with a focus on AAEMs and on potential toxic metallic elements in hyperaccumulator plants. The literature findings are discussed in relation to the applied laboratory procedures controlling the concentration of inherent inorganic elements, their capability of preserving the chemical integrity of the main organic components, and the ability of resembling the inherent inorganic elements in the raw biomass. The goal is to reveal possible experimental inconsistencies and to provide a clear scheme of the reaction pathways altered by the presence of inherent inorganics. This analysis paves the way for the examination of the proposed modifications of the existing models aiming at capturing the effect of inorganics on pyrolysis kinetics. Finally, the most relevant shortcomings and bottlenecks in existing experimental and modeling approaches are analyzed and directions for further studies are suggested.
2021
Inherent Metal Elements in Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review / Giudicianni, P.; Gargiulo, V.; Grottola, C. M.; Alfe, M.; Ferreiro, A. I.; Mendes, M. A. A.; Fagnano, M.; Ragucci, R.. - In: ENERGY & FUELS. - ISSN 0887-0624. - 35:7(2021), pp. 5407-5478. [10.1021/acs.energyfuels.0c04046]
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
acs.energyfuels.0c04046.pdf

accesso aperto

Licenza: Dominio pubblico
Dimensione 8.17 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
8.17 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/890213
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 69
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 59
social impact