Previous studies have demonstrated that both subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual specific immunotherapy (SLIT) are effective in treating allergic rhinitis (AR). Further studies have evaluated the efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) on different ear, nose, and throat (ENT) manifestations, in which allergy might have an etiopathogenetic role, such as local allergic rhinitis (LAR), rhinosinusitis (RS), otitis media (OM), and adenotonsillar (AT) disease. Nevertheless, the management of allergy in ENT diseases is still debated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review assessing the efficacy of AIT in ENT diseases aside from AR. Literature data confirmed that AIT might be an effective therapeutic option in LAR, although its effect is restricted to studies with short-term follow-up. Furthermore, previous research demonstrated that AIT may improve symptoms and surgical outcomes of chronic rhinosinusitis when used as an adjunctive treatment. Few studies supported the hypothesis that AIT may exert positive therapeutic effects on recurrent upper airway infections as adenotonsillar disease. Finally, some clinical observations suggested that AIT may add some benefits in the management of otitis media with effusion (OME). The results of this systematic review allow us to conclude that the efficacy of AIT in ENT disorders has been only slightly investigated and additional studies are needed.
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