Background: Biofilms have been found growing on implantable medical devices. This can lead to persistent clinical infections. The highly antibiotic-resistant property of biofilms necessitates the search for both potent antimicrobial agents and novel antibiofilm strategies. Natural product-based anti-biofilm agents were found to be as efficient as chemically synthesized counterparts with fewer side effects. In the present study, the effects of limonene as an antibiofilm agent were evaluated on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formed on different surfaces using the CDC model system in continuous flow. The flgK gene and the pilA gene expression in P. aeruginosa, and the icaA gene and eno gene in S. aureus, which could be considered as efficient resistance markers, were studied. Methods: Mono-and dual-species biofilms were grown on polycarbonate, polypropylene, and stainless-steel coupons in a CDC biofilm reactor (Biosurface Technologies, Bozeman, MT, USA). To evaluate the ability of limonene to inhibit and eradicate biofilm, a sub-MIC concentration (10 mL/L) was tested. The gene expression of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was detected by SYBR Green quantitative Real-Time PCR assay (Meridiana Bioline, Brisbane, Australia). Results: The limonene added during the formation of biofilms at sub-MIC concentrations works very well in inhibiting biofilms on all three materials, reducing their growth by about 2 logs. Of the same order of magnitude is the ability of limonene to eradicate both mono-and polymicrobial mature biofilms on all three materials. Greater efficacy was observed in the polymicrobial biofilm on steel coupons. The expression of some genes related to the virulence of the two microorganisms was differently detected in mono-and polymicrobial biofilm. Conclusions: These data showed that the limonene treatment expressed different levels of biofilm-forming genes, especially when both types of strains alone and together grew on different surfaces. Our findings showed that limonene treatment is also very efficient when biofilm has been grown under shear stress causing significant and irreversible damage to the biofilm structure. The effectiveness of the sanitation procedures can be optimized by applying antimicrobial combinations with natural compounds (e.g., limonene).

Evaluation of the Pathogenic-Mixed Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa/Staphylococcus aureus and Treatment with Limonene on Three Different Materials by a Dynamic Model

Gambino E.;Maione A.;Guida M.;Albarano L.;Carraturo F.
Primo
;
Galdiero E.
Penultimo
;
2022

Abstract

Background: Biofilms have been found growing on implantable medical devices. This can lead to persistent clinical infections. The highly antibiotic-resistant property of biofilms necessitates the search for both potent antimicrobial agents and novel antibiofilm strategies. Natural product-based anti-biofilm agents were found to be as efficient as chemically synthesized counterparts with fewer side effects. In the present study, the effects of limonene as an antibiofilm agent were evaluated on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formed on different surfaces using the CDC model system in continuous flow. The flgK gene and the pilA gene expression in P. aeruginosa, and the icaA gene and eno gene in S. aureus, which could be considered as efficient resistance markers, were studied. Methods: Mono-and dual-species biofilms were grown on polycarbonate, polypropylene, and stainless-steel coupons in a CDC biofilm reactor (Biosurface Technologies, Bozeman, MT, USA). To evaluate the ability of limonene to inhibit and eradicate biofilm, a sub-MIC concentration (10 mL/L) was tested. The gene expression of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was detected by SYBR Green quantitative Real-Time PCR assay (Meridiana Bioline, Brisbane, Australia). Results: The limonene added during the formation of biofilms at sub-MIC concentrations works very well in inhibiting biofilms on all three materials, reducing their growth by about 2 logs. Of the same order of magnitude is the ability of limonene to eradicate both mono-and polymicrobial mature biofilms on all three materials. Greater efficacy was observed in the polymicrobial biofilm on steel coupons. The expression of some genes related to the virulence of the two microorganisms was differently detected in mono-and polymicrobial biofilm. Conclusions: These data showed that the limonene treatment expressed different levels of biofilm-forming genes, especially when both types of strains alone and together grew on different surfaces. Our findings showed that limonene treatment is also very efficient when biofilm has been grown under shear stress causing significant and irreversible damage to the biofilm structure. The effectiveness of the sanitation procedures can be optimized by applying antimicrobial combinations with natural compounds (e.g., limonene).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/884651
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