The endophagous parasitoid Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of the larval stages of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) injects the egg, the venom, the calyx fluid, which includes a Polydnavirus (T. nigriceps BracoVirus: TnBV) and the Ovarian Proteins (OPs) into the host body during oviposition. The host metabolism and immune system are disrupted prematurely shortly after parasitization by the combined action of the TnBV, venom, and OPs. OPs are involved in the early suppression of host immune response, before TnBV infects and expresses its genes in the host tissues. In this work, we evaluated the effect of HPLC fractions deriving from in toto OPs. Two fractions caused a reduction in hemocyte viability and were subsequently tested to detect changes in hemocyte morphology and functionality. The two fractions provoked severe oxidative stress and actin cytoskeleton disruption, which might explain the high rate of hemocyte mortality, loss of hemocyte functioning, and hence the host’s reduced hemocyte encapsulation ability. Moreover, through a transcriptome and proteomic approach we identify the proteins of the two fractions: eight proteins were identified that might be involved in the observed host hemocyte changes. Our findings will contribute to a better understanding of the secreted ovarian components and their role in parasitoid wasp strategy for evading host immune responses

Identification and Functional Characterization of Toxoneuron nigriceps Ovarian Proteins Involved in the Early Suppression of Host Immune Response

Cozzolino F
Co-primo
;
Monti M;Falabella P.
2022

Abstract

The endophagous parasitoid Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of the larval stages of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) injects the egg, the venom, the calyx fluid, which includes a Polydnavirus (T. nigriceps BracoVirus: TnBV) and the Ovarian Proteins (OPs) into the host body during oviposition. The host metabolism and immune system are disrupted prematurely shortly after parasitization by the combined action of the TnBV, venom, and OPs. OPs are involved in the early suppression of host immune response, before TnBV infects and expresses its genes in the host tissues. In this work, we evaluated the effect of HPLC fractions deriving from in toto OPs. Two fractions caused a reduction in hemocyte viability and were subsequently tested to detect changes in hemocyte morphology and functionality. The two fractions provoked severe oxidative stress and actin cytoskeleton disruption, which might explain the high rate of hemocyte mortality, loss of hemocyte functioning, and hence the host’s reduced hemocyte encapsulation ability. Moreover, through a transcriptome and proteomic approach we identify the proteins of the two fractions: eight proteins were identified that might be involved in the observed host hemocyte changes. Our findings will contribute to a better understanding of the secreted ovarian components and their role in parasitoid wasp strategy for evading host immune responses
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/878163
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