Background: Oncolytic viruses are immunotherapeutic agents that can be engineered to encode payloads of interest within the tumor microenvironment to enhance therapeutic efficacy. Their therapeutic potential could be limited by many avenues for immune evasion exerted by the tumor. One such is mediated by adenosine, which induces pleiotropic immunosuppression by inhibiting antitumor immune populations as well as activating tolerogenic stimuli. Adenosine is produced starting from the highly immunostimulatory ATP, which is progressively hydrolyzed to ADP and adenosine by CD39 and CD73. Cancer cells express high levels of CD39 and CD73 ectoenzymes, thus converting immunostimulatory purinergic signal of ATP into an immunosuppressive signal. For this reason, CD39, CD73 and adenosine receptors are currently investigated in clinical trials as targets for metabolic cancer immunotherapy. This is of particular relevance in the context of oncovirotherapy, as immunogenic cell death induced by oncolytic viruses causes the secretion of a high amount of ATP which is available to be quickly converted into adenosine. Methods: Here, we took advantage of adenosine deaminase enzyme that naturally converts adenosine into the corresponding inosine derivative, devoid of immunoregulatory function. We encoded ADA into an oncolytic targeted herpes virus redirected to human HER2. An engineered ADA with an ectopic signal peptide was also generated to improve enzyme secretion (ADA‐SP). Results: Insertion of the expression cassette was not detrimental for viral yield and cancer cell cytotoxicity. The THV_ADA and THV_ADA‐SP successfully mediated the secretion of functional ADA enzyme. In in vitro model of human monocytes THP1, this ability of THV_ADA and THV_ADA‐SP resulted in the retrieval of eADO‐exposed monocytes replication rate, suggesting the proficiency of the viruses in rescuing the immune function. Conclusions: Encoding ADA into oncolytic viruses revealed promising properties for preclinical exploitation.

Generation of a retargeted oncolytic herpes virus encoding adenosine deaminase for tumor adenosine clearance

Froechlich G.;Amiranda S.;Nicosia A.;Zambrano N.;Sasso E.
2021

Abstract

Background: Oncolytic viruses are immunotherapeutic agents that can be engineered to encode payloads of interest within the tumor microenvironment to enhance therapeutic efficacy. Their therapeutic potential could be limited by many avenues for immune evasion exerted by the tumor. One such is mediated by adenosine, which induces pleiotropic immunosuppression by inhibiting antitumor immune populations as well as activating tolerogenic stimuli. Adenosine is produced starting from the highly immunostimulatory ATP, which is progressively hydrolyzed to ADP and adenosine by CD39 and CD73. Cancer cells express high levels of CD39 and CD73 ectoenzymes, thus converting immunostimulatory purinergic signal of ATP into an immunosuppressive signal. For this reason, CD39, CD73 and adenosine receptors are currently investigated in clinical trials as targets for metabolic cancer immunotherapy. This is of particular relevance in the context of oncovirotherapy, as immunogenic cell death induced by oncolytic viruses causes the secretion of a high amount of ATP which is available to be quickly converted into adenosine. Methods: Here, we took advantage of adenosine deaminase enzyme that naturally converts adenosine into the corresponding inosine derivative, devoid of immunoregulatory function. We encoded ADA into an oncolytic targeted herpes virus redirected to human HER2. An engineered ADA with an ectopic signal peptide was also generated to improve enzyme secretion (ADA‐SP). Results: Insertion of the expression cassette was not detrimental for viral yield and cancer cell cytotoxicity. The THV_ADA and THV_ADA‐SP successfully mediated the secretion of functional ADA enzyme. In in vitro model of human monocytes THP1, this ability of THV_ADA and THV_ADA‐SP resulted in the retrieval of eADO‐exposed monocytes replication rate, suggesting the proficiency of the viruses in rescuing the immune function. Conclusions: Encoding ADA into oncolytic viruses revealed promising properties for preclinical exploitation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/876181
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