Varroa destructor is the most important ectoparasitic mite of honey bees that has a negative impact on bee health and honey production. The control programs are mainly based on the use of synthetic acaricides that are often administered indiscriminately. All this has led to drug resistance that now represent a great concern for honey bee farming. The research for alternative products/methods for mites’ control is now mandatory. The aim of this study was to test whether Citrus spp. essential oils could diminish the growth of the V. destructor mite. In Calabria (southern Italy), plants of the Citrus genus are very common and grow both spontaneously and cultured. The essential oils used in this study were extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), orange (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulata) by hydrodistillation. Every EO was in vitro tested against V. destructor. Each experimental replicate was performed using 35 viable adult female mites (5 for each EO) collected the same day from the same apiary and included negative controls (5 individuals exposed to acetone only) and positive controls (5 individuals exposed to Amitraz diluted in acetone). The essential oils (Eos) were diluted (0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 2 mg/mL) in HPLC grade acetone to obtain the working solution to be tested (50 µL/tube). Mite mortality was manually assessed after 1 h exposure under controlled conditions. The essential oils that showed the best effectiveness at 0.5 mg/mL were bergamot, which neutralized (dead + inactivated) 80% (p ≤ 0.001) of the parasites; grapefruit, which neutralized 70% (p ≤ 0.001); and lemon, which neutralized 69% of them. Interestingly, the positive control (Ami-traz) at the same concentration neutralized 60% of the parasites. These results demonstrate that Calabrian bergamot, grapefruit, and lemon Eos consistently reduced V. destructor viability and open the possibility for their utilization to control this parasite in honey bee farming.

In vitro evaluation of acute toxicity of five citrus spp. Essential oils towards the parasitic mite varroa destructor / Bava, R.; Castagna, F.; Piras, C.; Palma, E.; Cringoli, G.; Musolino, V.; Lupia, C.; Perri, M. R.; Statti, G.; Britti, D.; Musella, V.. - In: PATHOGENS. - ISSN 2076-0817. - 10:9(2021), p. 1182. [10.3390/pathogens10091182]

In vitro evaluation of acute toxicity of five citrus spp. Essential oils towards the parasitic mite varroa destructor

Castagna F.;Palma E.;Cringoli G.;Statti G.;Musella V.
2021

Abstract

Varroa destructor is the most important ectoparasitic mite of honey bees that has a negative impact on bee health and honey production. The control programs are mainly based on the use of synthetic acaricides that are often administered indiscriminately. All this has led to drug resistance that now represent a great concern for honey bee farming. The research for alternative products/methods for mites’ control is now mandatory. The aim of this study was to test whether Citrus spp. essential oils could diminish the growth of the V. destructor mite. In Calabria (southern Italy), plants of the Citrus genus are very common and grow both spontaneously and cultured. The essential oils used in this study were extracted from bergamot (Citrus bergamia), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), orange (Citrus sinensis), and mandarin (Citrus reticulata) by hydrodistillation. Every EO was in vitro tested against V. destructor. Each experimental replicate was performed using 35 viable adult female mites (5 for each EO) collected the same day from the same apiary and included negative controls (5 individuals exposed to acetone only) and positive controls (5 individuals exposed to Amitraz diluted in acetone). The essential oils (Eos) were diluted (0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 2 mg/mL) in HPLC grade acetone to obtain the working solution to be tested (50 µL/tube). Mite mortality was manually assessed after 1 h exposure under controlled conditions. The essential oils that showed the best effectiveness at 0.5 mg/mL were bergamot, which neutralized (dead + inactivated) 80% (p ≤ 0.001) of the parasites; grapefruit, which neutralized 70% (p ≤ 0.001); and lemon, which neutralized 69% of them. Interestingly, the positive control (Ami-traz) at the same concentration neutralized 60% of the parasites. These results demonstrate that Calabrian bergamot, grapefruit, and lemon Eos consistently reduced V. destructor viability and open the possibility for their utilization to control this parasite in honey bee farming.
2021
In vitro evaluation of acute toxicity of five citrus spp. Essential oils towards the parasitic mite varroa destructor / Bava, R.; Castagna, F.; Piras, C.; Palma, E.; Cringoli, G.; Musolino, V.; Lupia, C.; Perri, M. R.; Statti, G.; Britti, D.; Musella, V.. - In: PATHOGENS. - ISSN 2076-0817. - 10:9(2021), p. 1182. [10.3390/pathogens10091182]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/876058
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