Background: Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) and acquired angioedema related to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEI-AAE) are types of bradykinin-mediated angioedema without wheals characterized by recurrent swelling episodes. Recent evidence suggests that a state of “vascular preconditioning” predisposes individuals to attacks, although no data are available on possible structural alterations of the vessels. Objective: This study aims to compare the features of nailfold capillaries to highlight possible structural anomalies between patients affected by C1-INH-HAE and controls and between patients with ACEI-AAE and hypertensive controls. Methods: We used nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) to assess the following: apical, internal, and external diameter; loop length; intercapillary distance; and capillary density, distribution, and morphology. Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, VEGF-C, angiopoietin (Ang) 1, and Ang2 were also measured. Results: Compared with healthy controls (n=28), C1-INH-HAE patients (n = 34) were characterized by significant structural alterations of the capillaries, such as greater intercapillary distance (216 vs 190 µm), increased apical, internal, and external diameter (28 vs 22 µm; 22 vs 20 µm; and 81 vs 65 µm, respectively), decreased density (4 vs 5 capillaries/mm2), more irregular capillary distribution, and more tortuous morphology. Apical diameter was enlarged in patients with ≥12 attacks per year. In ACEI-AAE patients, NVC showed no alterations with respect to hypertensive controls. NVC performed in 2 C1-INH-HAE patients during attacks showed no changes compared with the remission phase. Conclusions: We detected major structural capillary alterations in C1-INH-HAE patients, thus confirming the involvement of microcirculation in the pathogenesis of angioedema.

Nailfold videocapillaroscopy findings in bradykinin-mediated angioedema / Cesoni Marcelli, A.; Loffredo, S.; Petraroli, A.; Carucci, L.; Mormile, I.; Ferrara, A. L.; Spadaro, G.; Genovese, A.; Bova, M.. - In: JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIONAL ALLERGOLOGY & CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1018-9068. - 31:5(2021), pp. 404-416. [10.18176/jiaci.0524]

Nailfold videocapillaroscopy findings in bradykinin-mediated angioedema

Cesoni Marcelli A.
Primo
;
Loffredo S.;Carucci L.;Mormile I.;Ferrara A. L.;Spadaro G.;Genovese A.;Bova M.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Background: Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) and acquired angioedema related to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEI-AAE) are types of bradykinin-mediated angioedema without wheals characterized by recurrent swelling episodes. Recent evidence suggests that a state of “vascular preconditioning” predisposes individuals to attacks, although no data are available on possible structural alterations of the vessels. Objective: This study aims to compare the features of nailfold capillaries to highlight possible structural anomalies between patients affected by C1-INH-HAE and controls and between patients with ACEI-AAE and hypertensive controls. Methods: We used nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) to assess the following: apical, internal, and external diameter; loop length; intercapillary distance; and capillary density, distribution, and morphology. Plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, VEGF-C, angiopoietin (Ang) 1, and Ang2 were also measured. Results: Compared with healthy controls (n=28), C1-INH-HAE patients (n = 34) were characterized by significant structural alterations of the capillaries, such as greater intercapillary distance (216 vs 190 µm), increased apical, internal, and external diameter (28 vs 22 µm; 22 vs 20 µm; and 81 vs 65 µm, respectively), decreased density (4 vs 5 capillaries/mm2), more irregular capillary distribution, and more tortuous morphology. Apical diameter was enlarged in patients with ≥12 attacks per year. In ACEI-AAE patients, NVC showed no alterations with respect to hypertensive controls. NVC performed in 2 C1-INH-HAE patients during attacks showed no changes compared with the remission phase. Conclusions: We detected major structural capillary alterations in C1-INH-HAE patients, thus confirming the involvement of microcirculation in the pathogenesis of angioedema.
2021
Nailfold videocapillaroscopy findings in bradykinin-mediated angioedema / Cesoni Marcelli, A.; Loffredo, S.; Petraroli, A.; Carucci, L.; Mormile, I.; Ferrara, A. L.; Spadaro, G.; Genovese, A.; Bova, M.. - In: JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIONAL ALLERGOLOGY & CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1018-9068. - 31:5(2021), pp. 404-416. [10.18176/jiaci.0524]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/875728
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