The widespread application of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, commonly known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, in industrial and home-business sectors, and the expected increase in the number of workers and consumers that use these devices, have raised concerns regarding the possible health implications of 3D printing emissions. To inform the risk assessment and management processes, this review evaluates available data concerning exposure assessment in AM workplaces and possible effects of 3D printing emissions on humans identified through in vivo and in vitro models in order to inform risk assessment and management processes. Peer-reviewed literature was identified in Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases. The literature demonstrated that a significant fraction of the particles released during 3D printing could be in the ultrafine size range. Depending upon the additive material composition, increased levels of metals and volatile organic compounds could be detected during AM operations, compared with background levels. AM phases, specific job tasks performed, and preventive measures adopted may all affect exposure levels. Regarding possible health effects, printer emissions were preliminary reported to affect the respiratory system of involved workers. The limited number of workplace studies, together with the great variety of AM techniques and additive materials employed, limit generalizability of exposure features. Therefore, greater scientific efforts should be focused at understanding sources, magnitudes, and possible health effects of exposures to develop suitable processes for occupational risk assessment and management of AM technologies.

Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing: Implications for Risk Assessment and Management in Occupational Settings / Leso, V.; Ercolano, M. L.; Mazzotta, I.; Romano, M.; Cannavacciuolo, F.; Iavicoli, I.. - In: ANNALS OF WORK EXPOSURES AND HEALTH. - ISSN 2398-7308. - 65:6(2021), pp. 617-634. [10.1093/annweh/wxaa146]

Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing: Implications for Risk Assessment and Management in Occupational Settings

Leso V.;Ercolano M. L.;Mazzotta I.;Iavicoli I.
2021

Abstract

The widespread application of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, commonly known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, in industrial and home-business sectors, and the expected increase in the number of workers and consumers that use these devices, have raised concerns regarding the possible health implications of 3D printing emissions. To inform the risk assessment and management processes, this review evaluates available data concerning exposure assessment in AM workplaces and possible effects of 3D printing emissions on humans identified through in vivo and in vitro models in order to inform risk assessment and management processes. Peer-reviewed literature was identified in Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases. The literature demonstrated that a significant fraction of the particles released during 3D printing could be in the ultrafine size range. Depending upon the additive material composition, increased levels of metals and volatile organic compounds could be detected during AM operations, compared with background levels. AM phases, specific job tasks performed, and preventive measures adopted may all affect exposure levels. Regarding possible health effects, printer emissions were preliminary reported to affect the respiratory system of involved workers. The limited number of workplace studies, together with the great variety of AM techniques and additive materials employed, limit generalizability of exposure features. Therefore, greater scientific efforts should be focused at understanding sources, magnitudes, and possible health effects of exposures to develop suitable processes for occupational risk assessment and management of AM technologies.
2021
Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing: Implications for Risk Assessment and Management in Occupational Settings / Leso, V.; Ercolano, M. L.; Mazzotta, I.; Romano, M.; Cannavacciuolo, F.; Iavicoli, I.. - In: ANNALS OF WORK EXPOSURES AND HEALTH. - ISSN 2398-7308. - 65:6(2021), pp. 617-634. [10.1093/annweh/wxaa146]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/867556
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