In recent years, many studies have reported the frequent detection of antihypertensive agents such as sartans (olmesartan, valsartan, irbesartan and candesartan) in the influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and in the superficial waters of rivers and lakes in both Europe and North America. In this paper, the degradation pathway for candesartan (CAN) was investigated by simulating the chlorination process that is normally used to reduce microbial contamination in a WWTP. Twelve isolated degradation byproducts (DPs), four of which were isolated for the first time, were separated on a C-18 column by employing a gradient HPLC method, and their structures were identified by combining nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry and comparing the results with commercial standards. On the basis of these results, a mechanism of formation starting from the parent drug is proposed. The ecotoxicity of CAN and its DPs was studied by conducting a battery of ecotoxicity tests; bioassays were performed using Aliivibrio fischeri (bacterium), Daphnia magna (planktonic crustacean) and Raphidocelis subcapitata (alga). The ecotoxicity results shed new light on the increased toxicity of DPs compared with the parent compound.

Secondary effects of hypochlorite treatment on the emerging pollutant candesartan: The formation of degradation byproducts and their toxicological profiles

Luongo G.;Saviano L.;Libralato G.;Guida M.;Siciliano A.;Previtera L.;Di Fabio G.;Zarrelli A.
2021

Abstract

In recent years, many studies have reported the frequent detection of antihypertensive agents such as sartans (olmesartan, valsartan, irbesartan and candesartan) in the influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and in the superficial waters of rivers and lakes in both Europe and North America. In this paper, the degradation pathway for candesartan (CAN) was investigated by simulating the chlorination process that is normally used to reduce microbial contamination in a WWTP. Twelve isolated degradation byproducts (DPs), four of which were isolated for the first time, were separated on a C-18 column by employing a gradient HPLC method, and their structures were identified by combining nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry and comparing the results with commercial standards. On the basis of these results, a mechanism of formation starting from the parent drug is proposed. The ecotoxicity of CAN and its DPs was studied by conducting a battery of ecotoxicity tests; bioassays were performed using Aliivibrio fischeri (bacterium), Daphnia magna (planktonic crustacean) and Raphidocelis subcapitata (alga). The ecotoxicity results shed new light on the increased toxicity of DPs compared with the parent compound.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/856850
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