Antihypertensive drugs are among the most prescribed drugs. Olmesartan acid, of the sartan class, belongs to a relatively new generation of antihypertensive drugs called angiotensin II receptor blockers. There are very few studies on the presence and fate of sartans in the environment, despite them being marketed in huge quantities, metabolized in low percentages, and detected in wastewater and water bodies. This paper presents a study on the less abundant and more polar fractions that have been neglected in previous studies, which led to the isolation by chromatographic methods of thirteen degradation byproducts (DPs), six of which are new, identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. A mechanism of degradation from the parent drug was proposed. The ecotoxicity of olmesartan acid and identified compounds was evaluated in Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria and Raphidocelis subcapitata algae to assess acute and chronic toxicity. For 75% of the DPs, acute and chronic exposure to the compounds, at concentrations of 5 mg/L, inhibited population growth in the algae and decreased bioluminescence in the bacteria.

Complete characterization of degradation byproducts of olmesartan acid, degradation pathway, and ecotoxicity assessment

Luongo G.;Siciliano A.;Libralato G.;Guida M.;Saviano L.;Previtera L.;Di Fabio G.;Zarrelli A.
2021

Abstract

Antihypertensive drugs are among the most prescribed drugs. Olmesartan acid, of the sartan class, belongs to a relatively new generation of antihypertensive drugs called angiotensin II receptor blockers. There are very few studies on the presence and fate of sartans in the environment, despite them being marketed in huge quantities, metabolized in low percentages, and detected in wastewater and water bodies. This paper presents a study on the less abundant and more polar fractions that have been neglected in previous studies, which led to the isolation by chromatographic methods of thirteen degradation byproducts (DPs), six of which are new, identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. A mechanism of degradation from the parent drug was proposed. The ecotoxicity of olmesartan acid and identified compounds was evaluated in Aliivibrio fischeri bacteria and Raphidocelis subcapitata algae to assess acute and chronic toxicity. For 75% of the DPs, acute and chronic exposure to the compounds, at concentrations of 5 mg/L, inhibited population growth in the algae and decreased bioluminescence in the bacteria.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/856848
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