The metabolite profile of ten traditional apple cultivars grown in the Piedmont region (Italy) was studied by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identifying an overall number of 36 compounds. A more complete assignment of the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) resonances from hydroalcoholic and organic apple extracts with respect to literature data was reported, identifying fructose tautomeric forms, galacturonic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), p-coumaroyl moiety, phosphatidylcholine, and digalactosyldiacylglycerol. The chemical profile of each apple cultivar was defined by thorough quantitative NMR analysis of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and xylose), nine organic acids (acetic, citric, formic, citramalic, lactic, malic, quinic, and galacturonic acids), six amino acids (alanine, asparagine, aspartate, GABA, isoleucine, and valine), rhamnitol, p-coumaroyl derivative, phloretin/phloridzin and choline, as well as β-sitosterol, fatty acid chains, phosphatidylcholine, and digalactosyldiacylglycerol. Finally, the application of PCA analysis allowed us to highlight possible differences/similarities. The Magnana cultivar showed the highest content of sugars, GABA, valine, isoleucine, and alanine. The Runsé cultivar was characterized by high amounts of organic acids, whereas the Gamba Fina cultivar showed a high content of chlorogenic acid. A significant amount of quinic acid was detected in the Carla cultivar. The knowledge of apple chemical profiles can be useful for industries interested in specific compounds for obtaining ingredients of food supplements and functional foods and for promoting apple valorization and preservation.

NMR Characterization of Ten Apple Cultivars from the Piedmont Region / Di Matteo, Giacomo; Spano, Mattia; Esposito, Cristina; Santarcangelo, Cristina; Baldi, Alessandra; Daglia, Maria; Mannina, Luisa; Ingallina, Cinzia; Sobolev, Anatoly P. - In: FOODS. - ISSN 2304-8158. - 10:2(2021), p. 289. [10.3390/foods10020289]

NMR Characterization of Ten Apple Cultivars from the Piedmont Region

Esposito, Cristina;Santarcangelo, Cristina;Daglia, Maria;
2021

Abstract

The metabolite profile of ten traditional apple cultivars grown in the Piedmont region (Italy) was studied by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identifying an overall number of 36 compounds. A more complete assignment of the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) resonances from hydroalcoholic and organic apple extracts with respect to literature data was reported, identifying fructose tautomeric forms, galacturonic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), p-coumaroyl moiety, phosphatidylcholine, and digalactosyldiacylglycerol. The chemical profile of each apple cultivar was defined by thorough quantitative NMR analysis of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and xylose), nine organic acids (acetic, citric, formic, citramalic, lactic, malic, quinic, and galacturonic acids), six amino acids (alanine, asparagine, aspartate, GABA, isoleucine, and valine), rhamnitol, p-coumaroyl derivative, phloretin/phloridzin and choline, as well as β-sitosterol, fatty acid chains, phosphatidylcholine, and digalactosyldiacylglycerol. Finally, the application of PCA analysis allowed us to highlight possible differences/similarities. The Magnana cultivar showed the highest content of sugars, GABA, valine, isoleucine, and alanine. The Runsé cultivar was characterized by high amounts of organic acids, whereas the Gamba Fina cultivar showed a high content of chlorogenic acid. A significant amount of quinic acid was detected in the Carla cultivar. The knowledge of apple chemical profiles can be useful for industries interested in specific compounds for obtaining ingredients of food supplements and functional foods and for promoting apple valorization and preservation.
2021
NMR Characterization of Ten Apple Cultivars from the Piedmont Region / Di Matteo, Giacomo; Spano, Mattia; Esposito, Cristina; Santarcangelo, Cristina; Baldi, Alessandra; Daglia, Maria; Mannina, Luisa; Ingallina, Cinzia; Sobolev, Anatoly P. - In: FOODS. - ISSN 2304-8158. - 10:2(2021), p. 289. [10.3390/foods10020289]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/847779
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