Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (iPD) is a common motor neurodegenerative disorder. It affects more frequently the elderly population, causing a significant emotional burden both for the patient and caregivers, due to the disease-related onset of motor and cognitive disabilities. iPD's clinical hallmark is the onset of cardinal motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rest tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. However, these symptoms appear when the neurodegenerative process is already in an advanced stage. Furthermore, the greatest challenge is to distinguish iPD from other similar neurodegenerative disorders, "atypical parkinsonisms", such as Multisystem Atrophy, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Cortical Basal Degeneration, since they share many phenotypic manifestations, especially in the early stages. The diagnosis of these neurodegenerative motor disorders is essentially clinical. Consequently, the diagnostic accuracy mainly depends on the professional knowledge and experience of the physician. Recent advances in artificial intelligence have made it possible to analyze the large amount of clinical and instrumental information in the medical field. The application machine learning algorithms to the analysis of neuroimaging data appear to be a promising tool for identifying microstructural alterations related to the pathological process in order to explain the onset of symptoms and the spread of the neurodegenerative process. In this context, the search for quantitative biomarkers capable of identifying parkinsonian patients in the prodromal phases of the disease, of correctly distinguishing them from atypical parkinsonisms and of predicting clinical evolution and response to therapy represent the main goal of most current clinical research studies. Our aim was to review the recent literature and describe the current knowledge about the contribution given by machine learning applications to research and clinical management of parkinsonian syndromes.

Artificial intelligence applied to neuroimaging data in Parkinsonian syndromes: Actuality and expectations

Vitale, Annalisa;Villa, Rossella;Ugga, Lorenzo;Romeo, Valeria;Stanzione, Arnaldo;Cuocolo, Renato
2021

Abstract

Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (iPD) is a common motor neurodegenerative disorder. It affects more frequently the elderly population, causing a significant emotional burden both for the patient and caregivers, due to the disease-related onset of motor and cognitive disabilities. iPD's clinical hallmark is the onset of cardinal motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rest tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. However, these symptoms appear when the neurodegenerative process is already in an advanced stage. Furthermore, the greatest challenge is to distinguish iPD from other similar neurodegenerative disorders, "atypical parkinsonisms", such as Multisystem Atrophy, Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Cortical Basal Degeneration, since they share many phenotypic manifestations, especially in the early stages. The diagnosis of these neurodegenerative motor disorders is essentially clinical. Consequently, the diagnostic accuracy mainly depends on the professional knowledge and experience of the physician. Recent advances in artificial intelligence have made it possible to analyze the large amount of clinical and instrumental information in the medical field. The application machine learning algorithms to the analysis of neuroimaging data appear to be a promising tool for identifying microstructural alterations related to the pathological process in order to explain the onset of symptoms and the spread of the neurodegenerative process. In this context, the search for quantitative biomarkers capable of identifying parkinsonian patients in the prodromal phases of the disease, of correctly distinguishing them from atypical parkinsonisms and of predicting clinical evolution and response to therapy represent the main goal of most current clinical research studies. Our aim was to review the recent literature and describe the current knowledge about the contribution given by machine learning applications to research and clinical management of parkinsonian syndromes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/840329
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