In recent years, many studies have highlighted the consistent finding of amoxicillin in waters destined for wastewater treatment plants, in addition to superficial waters of rivers and lakes in both Europe and North America. In this paper, the amoxicillin degradation pathway was investigated by simulating the chlorination process normally used in a wastewater treatment plant to reduce similar emerging pollutants at three different pH values. The structures of 16 isolated degradation byproducts (DPs), one of which was isolated for the first time, were separated on a C-18 column via a gradient HPLC method. Combining mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we then compared commercial standards and justified a proposed formation mechanism beginning from the parent drug. Microbial growth inhibition bioassays with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were performed to determine the potential loss of antibacterial activity in isolated degradation byproducts. An increase of antibacterial activity in the DPs was observed compared to the parent compound.

Amoxicillin in water: Insights into relative reactivity, byproduct formation, and toxicological interactions during chlorination

Siciliano A.
Primo
;
Guida M.
Secondo
;
Libralato G.;Saviano L.;Luongo G.;Previtera L.;Di Fabio G.;Zarrelli A.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

In recent years, many studies have highlighted the consistent finding of amoxicillin in waters destined for wastewater treatment plants, in addition to superficial waters of rivers and lakes in both Europe and North America. In this paper, the amoxicillin degradation pathway was investigated by simulating the chlorination process normally used in a wastewater treatment plant to reduce similar emerging pollutants at three different pH values. The structures of 16 isolated degradation byproducts (DPs), one of which was isolated for the first time, were separated on a C-18 column via a gradient HPLC method. Combining mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we then compared commercial standards and justified a proposed formation mechanism beginning from the parent drug. Microbial growth inhibition bioassays with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were performed to determine the potential loss of antibacterial activity in isolated degradation byproducts. An increase of antibacterial activity in the DPs was observed compared to the parent compound.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/836245
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