The main physiological functions of plasmin, the active form of its proenzyme plasminogen, are blood clot fibrinolysis and restoration of normal blood flow. The plasminogen activation (PA) system includes urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), tissue-type PA (tPA), and two types of plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2). In addition to the regulation of fibrinolysis, the PA system plays an important role in other biological processes, which include degradation of extracellular matrix such as embryogenesis, cell migration, tissue remodeling, wound healing, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response. Recently, the link between PA system and angioedema has been a subject of scientific debate. Angioedema is defined as localized and self-limiting edema of subcutaneous and submucosal tissues, mediated by bradykinin and mast cell mediators. Different forms of angioedema are linked to uncontrolled activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. Moreover, plasmin itself can induce a potentiation of bradykinin production with consequent swelling episodes. The number of studies investigating the PA system involvement in angioedema has grown in recent years, highlighting its relevance in etiopathogenesis. In this review, we present the components and diverse functions of the PA system in physiology and its importance in angioedema pathogenesis.

The Role of the Plasminogen Activation System in Angioedema: Novel Insights on the Pathogenesis / Napolitano, Filomena; Montuori, Nunzia. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - 10:3(2021), pp. 518-518. [10.3390/jcm10030518]

The Role of the Plasminogen Activation System in Angioedema: Novel Insights on the Pathogenesis

Napolitano, Filomena;Montuori, Nunzia
2021

Abstract

The main physiological functions of plasmin, the active form of its proenzyme plasminogen, are blood clot fibrinolysis and restoration of normal blood flow. The plasminogen activation (PA) system includes urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), tissue-type PA (tPA), and two types of plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2). In addition to the regulation of fibrinolysis, the PA system plays an important role in other biological processes, which include degradation of extracellular matrix such as embryogenesis, cell migration, tissue remodeling, wound healing, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response. Recently, the link between PA system and angioedema has been a subject of scientific debate. Angioedema is defined as localized and self-limiting edema of subcutaneous and submucosal tissues, mediated by bradykinin and mast cell mediators. Different forms of angioedema are linked to uncontrolled activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. Moreover, plasmin itself can induce a potentiation of bradykinin production with consequent swelling episodes. The number of studies investigating the PA system involvement in angioedema has grown in recent years, highlighting its relevance in etiopathogenesis. In this review, we present the components and diverse functions of the PA system in physiology and its importance in angioedema pathogenesis.
2021
The Role of the Plasminogen Activation System in Angioedema: Novel Insights on the Pathogenesis / Napolitano, Filomena; Montuori, Nunzia. - In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 2077-0383. - 10:3(2021), pp. 518-518. [10.3390/jcm10030518]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/835926
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