Background: Several mechanisms are present in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to impair cytotoxic T cell responses potentially able to control tumor growth. Among these, the accumulation of adenosine (Ado) contributes to tumor progression and represents a promising immunotherapeutic target. Ado has been shown to impair T cell effector function, but the role and mechanisms employed by Ado/Ado receptors (AdoRs) in modulating human peripheral and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) function are still puzzling. Methods: CD8+ T cell cytokine production following stimulation was quantified by intracellular staining and flow cytometry. The cytotoxic capacity of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was quantified by the chromium release assay following co-culture with autologous or anti-CD3-loaded tumor cell lines. The CD8+ T cell metabolic fitness was evaluated by the seahorse assay and by the quantification of 2-NBDG uptake and CD71/CD98 upregulation upon stimulation. The expression of AdoRs was assessed by RNA flow cytometry, a recently developed technology that we validated by semiquantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), while the impact on T cell function was evaluated by the use of selective antagonists and agonists. The influence of Ado/AdoR on the PKA and mTOR pathways was evaluated by phosphoflow staining of p-CREB and p-S6, respectively, and validated by western blot. Results: Here, we demonstrate that Ado signaling through the A2A receptor (A2AR) in human peripheral CD8+ T cells and TILs is responsible for the higher sensitivity to Ado-mediated suppression of T central memory cells. We confirmed that Ado is able to impair peripheral and tumor-expanded T cell effector functions, and we show for the first time its impact on metabolic fitness. The Ado-mediated immunosuppressive effects are mediated by increased PKA activation that results in impairment of the mTORC1 pathway. Conclusions: Our findings unveil A2AR/PKA/mTORC1 as the main Ado signaling pathway impairing the immune competence of peripheral T cells and TILs. Thus, p-CREB and p-S6 may represent useful pharmacodynamic and efficacy biomarkers of immunotherapies targeting Ado. The effect of Ado on T cell metabolic fitness reinforces the importance of the adenosinergic pathway as a target for next-generation immunotherapy.

Adenosine mediates functional and metabolic suppression of peripheral and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells / Mastelic-Gavillet, B.; Navarro Rodrigo, B.; Decombaz, L.; Wang, H.; Ercolano, G.; Ahmed, R.; Lozano, L. E.; Ianaro, A.; Derre, L.; Valerio, M.; Tawadros, T.; Jichlinski, P.; Nguyen-Ngoc, T.; Speiser, D. E.; Verdeil, G.; Gestermann, N.; Dormond, O.; Kandalaft, L.; Coukos, G.; Jandus, C.; Menetrier-Caux, C.; Caux, C.; Ho, P. -C.; Romero, P.; Harari, A.; Vigano, S.. - In: JOURNAL FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER. - ISSN 2051-1426. - 7:1(2019), p. 257. [10.1186/s40425-019-0719-5]

Adenosine mediates functional and metabolic suppression of peripheral and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells

Ercolano G.;Ianaro A.;
2019

Abstract

Background: Several mechanisms are present in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to impair cytotoxic T cell responses potentially able to control tumor growth. Among these, the accumulation of adenosine (Ado) contributes to tumor progression and represents a promising immunotherapeutic target. Ado has been shown to impair T cell effector function, but the role and mechanisms employed by Ado/Ado receptors (AdoRs) in modulating human peripheral and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) function are still puzzling. Methods: CD8+ T cell cytokine production following stimulation was quantified by intracellular staining and flow cytometry. The cytotoxic capacity of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was quantified by the chromium release assay following co-culture with autologous or anti-CD3-loaded tumor cell lines. The CD8+ T cell metabolic fitness was evaluated by the seahorse assay and by the quantification of 2-NBDG uptake and CD71/CD98 upregulation upon stimulation. The expression of AdoRs was assessed by RNA flow cytometry, a recently developed technology that we validated by semiquantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), while the impact on T cell function was evaluated by the use of selective antagonists and agonists. The influence of Ado/AdoR on the PKA and mTOR pathways was evaluated by phosphoflow staining of p-CREB and p-S6, respectively, and validated by western blot. Results: Here, we demonstrate that Ado signaling through the A2A receptor (A2AR) in human peripheral CD8+ T cells and TILs is responsible for the higher sensitivity to Ado-mediated suppression of T central memory cells. We confirmed that Ado is able to impair peripheral and tumor-expanded T cell effector functions, and we show for the first time its impact on metabolic fitness. The Ado-mediated immunosuppressive effects are mediated by increased PKA activation that results in impairment of the mTORC1 pathway. Conclusions: Our findings unveil A2AR/PKA/mTORC1 as the main Ado signaling pathway impairing the immune competence of peripheral T cells and TILs. Thus, p-CREB and p-S6 may represent useful pharmacodynamic and efficacy biomarkers of immunotherapies targeting Ado. The effect of Ado on T cell metabolic fitness reinforces the importance of the adenosinergic pathway as a target for next-generation immunotherapy.
2019
Adenosine mediates functional and metabolic suppression of peripheral and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells / Mastelic-Gavillet, B.; Navarro Rodrigo, B.; Decombaz, L.; Wang, H.; Ercolano, G.; Ahmed, R.; Lozano, L. E.; Ianaro, A.; Derre, L.; Valerio, M.; Tawadros, T.; Jichlinski, P.; Nguyen-Ngoc, T.; Speiser, D. E.; Verdeil, G.; Gestermann, N.; Dormond, O.; Kandalaft, L.; Coukos, G.; Jandus, C.; Menetrier-Caux, C.; Caux, C.; Ho, P. -C.; Romero, P.; Harari, A.; Vigano, S.. - In: JOURNAL FOR IMMUNOTHERAPY OF CANCER. - ISSN 2051-1426. - 7:1(2019), p. 257. [10.1186/s40425-019-0719-5]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/833476
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