Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Despite sharing the name and similar morphological features with cutaneous melanoma (CM), it is an entirely different neoplasia with a particular genetic background and clinical behavior. CDKN2A is a gene located at chromosome 9p21, encoding for P16INK4a and P14(ARF) proteins, whose role as a tumor suppressor has been clearly defined in many malignant tumors. CDKN2A frequently presents germline mutations in familial CM and epigenetic downregulation in a considerable percentage of sporadic CM. It has been hypothesized that CDKN2A alterations are early events in CM development, playing a central role in the malignant transformation of melanocytes. Alterations of the CDKN2A gene reduce the expression of P16INK4a in most CM subtypes. Immunohistochemical evaluation of P16INK4a is currently used, in association with Ki67 and HMB45, in pathology practice to discriminate between dysplastic nevi and melanoma. On the other hand, CKDN2A is rarely mutated in UM, and the immunohistochemical expression of P16INK4a has only been reported in small case series. We tested P16INK4a expression on paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 9 tissue microarrays (TMAs), built with 2 mm cores derived from 133 uveal melanoma FFPE blocks, collected from 1990 to 2018, and from selected paraffin-blocks of 3 UM liver metastases. The immunohistochemical expression of P16INK4a was assessed with a visual evaluation by light microscopy and then with a digital approach. Both approaches, with an acceptable concordance rate, revealed P16INK4a expression in a large proportion of UM cases and all liver metastases, opening new possibilities of using it in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous and uveal melanoma metastases in cases of unknown primary tumor or patients with two different primary melanomas.

Expression of P16INK4a in Uveal Melanoma: New Perspectives

Russo D.;Di Crescenzo R. M.;Merolla F.;Martino F.;Varricchio S.;Ilardi G.;Borzillo A.;Carandente R.;Pignatiello S.;Mascolo M.;Caltabiano R.;Staibano S.
2020

Abstract

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Despite sharing the name and similar morphological features with cutaneous melanoma (CM), it is an entirely different neoplasia with a particular genetic background and clinical behavior. CDKN2A is a gene located at chromosome 9p21, encoding for P16INK4a and P14(ARF) proteins, whose role as a tumor suppressor has been clearly defined in many malignant tumors. CDKN2A frequently presents germline mutations in familial CM and epigenetic downregulation in a considerable percentage of sporadic CM. It has been hypothesized that CDKN2A alterations are early events in CM development, playing a central role in the malignant transformation of melanocytes. Alterations of the CDKN2A gene reduce the expression of P16INK4a in most CM subtypes. Immunohistochemical evaluation of P16INK4a is currently used, in association with Ki67 and HMB45, in pathology practice to discriminate between dysplastic nevi and melanoma. On the other hand, CKDN2A is rarely mutated in UM, and the immunohistochemical expression of P16INK4a has only been reported in small case series. We tested P16INK4a expression on paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 9 tissue microarrays (TMAs), built with 2 mm cores derived from 133 uveal melanoma FFPE blocks, collected from 1990 to 2018, and from selected paraffin-blocks of 3 UM liver metastases. The immunohistochemical expression of P16INK4a was assessed with a visual evaluation by light microscopy and then with a digital approach. Both approaches, with an acceptable concordance rate, revealed P16INK4a expression in a large proportion of UM cases and all liver metastases, opening new possibilities of using it in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous and uveal melanoma metastases in cases of unknown primary tumor or patients with two different primary melanomas.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/832003
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