Introduction: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by watery diarrhea with a high level of fecal Cl−, metabolic alkalosis, and electrolyte alterations. Several intestinal and extraintestinal complications and even death can occur. An optimal knowledge of the clinical features and best therapeutic strategies is mandatory for an effective management. Methods: Articles published between 1 January 1965 and 31 December 2019, reported in PUBMED and EMBASE, were evaluated for a systematic review analyzing four categories: anamnestic features, clinical features, management, and follow-up strategies. Results: Fifty-seven papers reporting information on 193 CLD patients were included. The most common anamnestic features were positive family anamnesis for chronic diarrhea (44.4%), consanguinity (75%), polyhydramnios (98.3%), preterm delivery (78.6%), and failure to pass meconium (60.7%). Mean age at diarrhea onset was 6.63 days. Median diagnostic delay was 60 days. Prenatal diagnosis, based on molecular analysis, was described in 40/172 (23.3%). All patients received NaCl/KCl-substitutive therapy. An improvement of diarrhea during adulthood was reported in 91.3% of cases. Failure to thrive (21.6%) and chronic kidney disease (17.7%) were the most common complications. Conclusions: This analysis of a large population suggests the necessity of better strategies for the management of CLD. A close follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to manage this condition characterized by heterogeneous and multisystemic complications. Impact: In this systematic review, we describe data regarding anamnestic features, clinical features, management, and follow-up of CLD patients obtained from the largest population of patients ever described to date.The results of our investigation could provide useful insights for the diagnostic approach and the management of this condition.

Congenital chloride diarrhea clinical features and management: a systematic review / Di Meglio, L.; Castaldo, G.; Mosca, C.; Paonessa, A.; Gelzo, M.; Esposito, M. V.; Berni Canani, R.. - In: PEDIATRIC RESEARCH. - ISSN 0031-3998. - 90:1(2021), pp. 23-29. [10.1038/s41390-020-01251-2]

Congenital chloride diarrhea clinical features and management: a systematic review

Castaldo G.;Gelzo M.;Esposito M. V.;Berni Canani R.
2021

Abstract

Introduction: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by watery diarrhea with a high level of fecal Cl−, metabolic alkalosis, and electrolyte alterations. Several intestinal and extraintestinal complications and even death can occur. An optimal knowledge of the clinical features and best therapeutic strategies is mandatory for an effective management. Methods: Articles published between 1 January 1965 and 31 December 2019, reported in PUBMED and EMBASE, were evaluated for a systematic review analyzing four categories: anamnestic features, clinical features, management, and follow-up strategies. Results: Fifty-seven papers reporting information on 193 CLD patients were included. The most common anamnestic features were positive family anamnesis for chronic diarrhea (44.4%), consanguinity (75%), polyhydramnios (98.3%), preterm delivery (78.6%), and failure to pass meconium (60.7%). Mean age at diarrhea onset was 6.63 days. Median diagnostic delay was 60 days. Prenatal diagnosis, based on molecular analysis, was described in 40/172 (23.3%). All patients received NaCl/KCl-substitutive therapy. An improvement of diarrhea during adulthood was reported in 91.3% of cases. Failure to thrive (21.6%) and chronic kidney disease (17.7%) were the most common complications. Conclusions: This analysis of a large population suggests the necessity of better strategies for the management of CLD. A close follow-up and a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to manage this condition characterized by heterogeneous and multisystemic complications. Impact: In this systematic review, we describe data regarding anamnestic features, clinical features, management, and follow-up of CLD patients obtained from the largest population of patients ever described to date.The results of our investigation could provide useful insights for the diagnostic approach and the management of this condition.
2021
Congenital chloride diarrhea clinical features and management: a systematic review / Di Meglio, L.; Castaldo, G.; Mosca, C.; Paonessa, A.; Gelzo, M.; Esposito, M. V.; Berni Canani, R.. - In: PEDIATRIC RESEARCH. - ISSN 0031-3998. - 90:1(2021), pp. 23-29. [10.1038/s41390-020-01251-2]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/826623
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