Cocaine is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in the world, and as a result of incomplete removal by sewage treatment plants it is found in surface waters, where it represents a new potential risk for aquatic organisms. In this study we evaluated the influence of environmental concentrations of cocaine on the liver and the kidney of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). The eels were exposed to 20 ng L−1 of cocaine for fifty days, after which, three and ten days after the interruption of cocaine exposure their livers and kidneys were compared to controls. The general morphology of the two organs was evaluated, as well as the following parameters: cytochrome oxidase (COX) and caspase-3 activities, as markers of oxidative metabolism and apoptosis activation, respectively; glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 levels, as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress; blood glucose level, as stress marker; serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as a marker of liver injury and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), as a marker of the inflammatory process. The liver showed morphologic alterations such as necrotic areas, karyolysis and pyknotic nuclei, while the kidneys had dilated glomeruli and the renal tubules showed pyknotic nuclei and karyolysis. In the kidney, the alterations persisted after the interruption of cocaine exposure. In the liver, COX and caspase-3 activities increased (COX: P = 0.01; caspase-3: P = 0.032); ten days after the interruption of cocaine exposure, COX activity returned to control levels (P = 0.06) whereas caspase-3 activity decreased further (P = 0.012); GRP78 expression increased only in post-exposure recovery specimens (three days: P = 0.007 and ten days: P = 0.008 after the interruption of cocaine exposure, respectively). In the kidney, COX and caspase-3 activities increased (COX: P = 0.02; caspase-3: P = 0.019); after the interruption of cocaine exposure, COX activity remained high (three days: P = 0.02 and ten days: P = 0.029 after the interruption of cocaine exposure, respectively) whereas caspase-3 activity returned to control values (three days: P = 0.69 and ten days: P = 0.67 after the interruption of cocaine exposure, respectively). Blood glucose and serum ALT and CRP levels increased (blood glucose: P = 0.01; ALT: P = 0.001; CRP: 0.015) and remained high also ten days after the interruption of cocaine exposure (blood glucose: P = 0.009; ALT: P = 0.0031; CRP: 0.036). These results suggest that environmental cocaine concentrations adversely affected liver and kidney of this species.

Effects of environmental cocaine concentrations on COX and caspase-3 activity, GRP-78, ALT, CRP and blood glucose levels in the liver and kidney of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

Capaldo A.
Primo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Di Lorenzo M.
Data Curation
;
Rosati L.
Penultimo
Formal Analysis
;
Laforgia V.
Ultimo
Supervision
2021

Abstract

Cocaine is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in the world, and as a result of incomplete removal by sewage treatment plants it is found in surface waters, where it represents a new potential risk for aquatic organisms. In this study we evaluated the influence of environmental concentrations of cocaine on the liver and the kidney of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). The eels were exposed to 20 ng L−1 of cocaine for fifty days, after which, three and ten days after the interruption of cocaine exposure their livers and kidneys were compared to controls. The general morphology of the two organs was evaluated, as well as the following parameters: cytochrome oxidase (COX) and caspase-3 activities, as markers of oxidative metabolism and apoptosis activation, respectively; glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 levels, as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress; blood glucose level, as stress marker; serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as a marker of liver injury and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), as a marker of the inflammatory process. The liver showed morphologic alterations such as necrotic areas, karyolysis and pyknotic nuclei, while the kidneys had dilated glomeruli and the renal tubules showed pyknotic nuclei and karyolysis. In the kidney, the alterations persisted after the interruption of cocaine exposure. In the liver, COX and caspase-3 activities increased (COX: P = 0.01; caspase-3: P = 0.032); ten days after the interruption of cocaine exposure, COX activity returned to control levels (P = 0.06) whereas caspase-3 activity decreased further (P = 0.012); GRP78 expression increased only in post-exposure recovery specimens (three days: P = 0.007 and ten days: P = 0.008 after the interruption of cocaine exposure, respectively). In the kidney, COX and caspase-3 activities increased (COX: P = 0.02; caspase-3: P = 0.019); after the interruption of cocaine exposure, COX activity remained high (three days: P = 0.02 and ten days: P = 0.029 after the interruption of cocaine exposure, respectively) whereas caspase-3 activity returned to control values (three days: P = 0.69 and ten days: P = 0.67 after the interruption of cocaine exposure, respectively). Blood glucose and serum ALT and CRP levels increased (blood glucose: P = 0.01; ALT: P = 0.001; CRP: 0.015) and remained high also ten days after the interruption of cocaine exposure (blood glucose: P = 0.009; ALT: P = 0.0031; CRP: 0.036). These results suggest that environmental cocaine concentrations adversely affected liver and kidney of this species.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/824066
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