Many details of oxidative folding of proteins remain obscure, in particular, the role of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). This study reveals some unknown aspects. When a reduced ribonuclease A refolds in the presence of GSSG, most of its eight cysteines accomplish a very fast glutathionylation. In particular, one single cysteine, identified as Cys95 by mass spectrometry, displays 3600 times higher reactivity when compared with an unperturbed protein cysteine. Furthermore, the other five cysteines show 40-50 times higher reactivity toward GSSG. This phenomenon is partially due to a low pKa value of most of these cysteines (average pKa = 7.9), but the occurrence of a reversible GSSG-ribonuclease complex (KD = 0.12 mM) is reasonably responsible for the extraordinary hyper-reactivity of Cys95. Neither hyper-reactivity nor some protein-disulfide complexes have been found by reacting a reduced ribonuclease with other natural disulfides i.e., cystine, cystamine, and homocystine. Hyper-reactivity of all cysteines was observed toward 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Given that GSSG is present in high concentrations in the endoplasmic reticulum, this property may shed light on the early step of its oxidative folding. The ultra-rapid glutathionylation of cysteines, only devoted to form disulfides, is a novel property of the molten globule status of the ribonuclease.

Ultra-rapid glutathionylation of ribonuclease: Is this the real incipit of its oxidative folding? / Bocedi, A.; Cattani, G.; Gambardella, G.; Ticconi, S.; Cozzolino, Flora; Di Fusco, O.; Pucci, Pietro.; Ricci, G.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 20:21(2019). [10.3390/ijms20215440]

Ultra-rapid glutathionylation of ribonuclease: Is this the real incipit of its oxidative folding?

Cozzolino Flora .;Pucci Pietro.;
2019

Abstract

Many details of oxidative folding of proteins remain obscure, in particular, the role of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). This study reveals some unknown aspects. When a reduced ribonuclease A refolds in the presence of GSSG, most of its eight cysteines accomplish a very fast glutathionylation. In particular, one single cysteine, identified as Cys95 by mass spectrometry, displays 3600 times higher reactivity when compared with an unperturbed protein cysteine. Furthermore, the other five cysteines show 40-50 times higher reactivity toward GSSG. This phenomenon is partially due to a low pKa value of most of these cysteines (average pKa = 7.9), but the occurrence of a reversible GSSG-ribonuclease complex (KD = 0.12 mM) is reasonably responsible for the extraordinary hyper-reactivity of Cys95. Neither hyper-reactivity nor some protein-disulfide complexes have been found by reacting a reduced ribonuclease with other natural disulfides i.e., cystine, cystamine, and homocystine. Hyper-reactivity of all cysteines was observed toward 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Given that GSSG is present in high concentrations in the endoplasmic reticulum, this property may shed light on the early step of its oxidative folding. The ultra-rapid glutathionylation of cysteines, only devoted to form disulfides, is a novel property of the molten globule status of the ribonuclease.
2019
Ultra-rapid glutathionylation of ribonuclease: Is this the real incipit of its oxidative folding? / Bocedi, A.; Cattani, G.; Gambardella, G.; Ticconi, S.; Cozzolino, Flora; Di Fusco, O.; Pucci, Pietro.; Ricci, G.. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES. - ISSN 1661-6596. - 20:21(2019). [10.3390/ijms20215440]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/777711
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