Breast cancers are very heterogeneous tissues with several cell types and metabolic pathways together sustaining the initiation and progression of disease and contributing to evasion from cancer therapies. Furthermore, breast cancer cells have an impressive metabolic plasticity that is regulated by the heterogeneous tumour microenvironment through bidirectional interactions. The structure and accessibility of nutrients within this unstable microenvironment influence the metabolism of cancer cells that shift between glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In this scenario, the mitochondrial energetic pathways of cancer cells can be reprogrammed to modulate breast cancer’s progression and aggressiveness. Moreover, mitochondrial alterations can lead to crosstalk between the mitochondria and the nucleus, and subsequently affect cancer tissue properties. This article reviewed the metabolic plasticity of breast cancer cells, focussing mainly on breast cancer mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming and the mitochondrial alterations influencing nuclear pathways. Finally, the therapeutic strategies targeting molecules and pathways regulating cancer mitochondrial alterations are highlighted.

Mitochondrial Flexibility of Breast Cancers: A Growth Advantage and a Therapeutic Opportunity

Avagliano Angelica
;
Ruocco Maria Rosaria;Aliotta Federica;Belviso Immacolata;Accurso Antonello;Masone Stefania;Montagnani Stefania;Arcucci Alessandro
2019

Abstract

Breast cancers are very heterogeneous tissues with several cell types and metabolic pathways together sustaining the initiation and progression of disease and contributing to evasion from cancer therapies. Furthermore, breast cancer cells have an impressive metabolic plasticity that is regulated by the heterogeneous tumour microenvironment through bidirectional interactions. The structure and accessibility of nutrients within this unstable microenvironment influence the metabolism of cancer cells that shift between glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In this scenario, the mitochondrial energetic pathways of cancer cells can be reprogrammed to modulate breast cancer’s progression and aggressiveness. Moreover, mitochondrial alterations can lead to crosstalk between the mitochondria and the nucleus, and subsequently affect cancer tissue properties. This article reviewed the metabolic plasticity of breast cancer cells, focussing mainly on breast cancer mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming and the mitochondrial alterations influencing nuclear pathways. Finally, the therapeutic strategies targeting molecules and pathways regulating cancer mitochondrial alterations are highlighted.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/770888
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