The analysis of the behaviour of masonry infills under out-of-plane (OOP) and in-plane (IP) loading is paramount to correctly assess the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) frames. A very important issue about this topic is certainly the IP/OOP interaction, namely the analysis of how the IP damage, which affects infills during earthquakes, can influence their OOP behaviour (and vice-versa). Some studies about this topic were developed in the last years; nevertheless, only a dozen of tests currently exists in the literature to experimentally explore this key issue. This work first presents an experimental campaign carried out on square infill walls in RC frames to investigate about the OOP behaviour of the masonry infills, and about the IP/OOP interaction. On the whole, four specimens have been tested under OOP monotonic loading. Three of them have been first damaged under cyclic IP actions, with different extent; the remaining one, used as a reference, was tested under OOP loading only. The experimental campaign is described in detail in terms of specimens’ characteristics, material properties, adopted setup and instrumentation layout. The experimental results are analysed in terms of IP and OOP force-displacement responses, vertical arch strength contribution evolutions, and damage state evolutions, and compared with prediction proposals from the literature. Then, the influence of the infill aspect ratio (width (w)-to-height (h) ratio) on the IP/OOP interaction is investigated by means of the comparison between data presented herein (collected on infills with w/h=1) and a companion experimental campaign previously performed on nominally identical infills except that for the aspect ratio of the specimens (in that case, higher than the unit). It has been observed that under given IP drift levels, square infills presented lower IP damage levels with respect to rectangular infills (with w/h > 1), thus generally producing a less pronounced detrimental effect of the IP imposed drift on the OOP strength. Nevertheless, none of the predictions from literature takes into account the role of the aspect ratio on the IP/OOP interaction, generally resulting in conservative predictions, to be improved in future works.
Experimental investigation on the influence of the aspect ratio on the in-plane/out-of-plane interaction for masonry infills in RC frames / De Risi, Maria Teresa; Di Domenico, Mariano; Ricci, Paolo; Verderame, Gerardo Mario; Manfredi, Gaetano. - In: ENGINEERING STRUCTURES. - ISSN 0141-0296. - 189:(2019), pp. 523-540. [10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.03.111]