In addition to insulin, glycemic control involves thyroid hormones. However, an excess of thyroid hormone can disturb the blood glucose equilibrium, leading to alterations of carbohydrate metabolism and, eventually, diabetes. Indeed, experimental and clinical hyperthyroidism is often accompanied by abnormal glucose tolerance. A common characteristic of hyperthyroidism and type 2 diabetes is the altered mitochondrial efficiency caused by the enhanced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. It is known that an excess of thyroid hormone leads to increased oxidant production and mitochondrial oxidative damage. It can be hypothesised that these species represent the link between hyperthyroidism and development of insulin resistance and diabetes, even though direct evidence of this relationship is lacking. In this review, we examine the literature concerning the effects of insulin and thyroid hormones on glucose metabolism and discuss alterations of glucose metabolism in hyperthyroid conditions and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underline them.

Insulin resistance and diabetes in hyperthyroidism: a possible role for oxygen and nitrogen reactive species.

Venditti P;Di Meo Sergio
2019

Abstract

In addition to insulin, glycemic control involves thyroid hormones. However, an excess of thyroid hormone can disturb the blood glucose equilibrium, leading to alterations of carbohydrate metabolism and, eventually, diabetes. Indeed, experimental and clinical hyperthyroidism is often accompanied by abnormal glucose tolerance. A common characteristic of hyperthyroidism and type 2 diabetes is the altered mitochondrial efficiency caused by the enhanced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. It is known that an excess of thyroid hormone leads to increased oxidant production and mitochondrial oxidative damage. It can be hypothesised that these species represent the link between hyperthyroidism and development of insulin resistance and diabetes, even though direct evidence of this relationship is lacking. In this review, we examine the literature concerning the effects of insulin and thyroid hormones on glucose metabolism and discuss alterations of glucose metabolism in hyperthyroid conditions and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that may underline them.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/749949
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