Data from the PAMELA satellite experiment were used to perform a detailed measurement of under-cutoff protons at low Earth orbits. On the basis of a trajectory tracing approach using a realistic description of the magnetosphere, protons were classified into geomagnetically trapped and re-entrant albedo. The former include stably-trapped protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly, which were analyzed in the framework of the adiabatic theory, investigating energy spectra, spatial and angular distributions; results were compared with the predictions of the AP8 and the PSB97 empirical trapped models. The albedo protons were classified into quasi-trapped, concentrating in the magnetic equatorial region, and un-trapped, spreading over all latitudes and including both short-lived (precipitating) and long-lived (pseudo-trapped) components. Features of the penumbra region around the geomagnetic cutoff were investigated as well. PAMELA observations significantly improve the characterization of the high energy proton populations in near Earth orbits. The.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.