BACKGROUND/AIMS: Both 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-tyronine (T3) affect energy metabolism having mitochondria as a major target. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using a model of chemically induced hypothyroidism in male Wistar rats, we investigated the effect of administration of either 3,5-T2 or T3 on liver oxidative capacity through their influence on mitochondrial processes including: proton-leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane; complex I-, complex II- and glycerol-3-phosphate-linked respiratory pathways; respiratory complex abundance and activities as well as individual complex aggregation into supercomplexes. METHODS: Hypothyroidism was induced by propylthiouracil and iopanoic acid; 3,5-T2 and T3 were intraperitoneally administered at 25 and 15 µg/100 g BW for 1 week, respectively. Resulting alterations in mitochondrial function were studied by combining respirometry, Blue Native-PAGE followed by in-gel activity, and Western blot analyses. RESULTS: Administration of 3,5-T2 and T3 to hypothyroid (hypo) rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration rate with only T3 effectively stimulating proton-leak (450% vs. Hypo). T3 significantly enhanced complex I (+145% vs. Hypo), complex II (+66% vs. Hypo), and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH)-linked oxygen consumptions (about 6- fold those obtained in Hypo), while 3,5-T2 administration selectively restored Euthyroid values of complex II- and increased G3PDH- linked respiratory pathways (+165% vs. Hypo). The mitochondrial abundance of all respiratory complexes and of G3PDH was increased by T3 administration whereas 3,5-T2 only increased complex V and G3PDH abundance. 3,5-T2 enhanced complex I and complex II in gel activities with less intensity than did T3, and T3 also enhanced the activity of all other respiratory complexes tested. In addition, only T3 enhanced individual respiratory component complex assembly into supercomplexes. CONCLUSIONS: The reported data highlight novel molecular mechanisms underlying the effect elicited by iodothyronine administration to hypothyroid rats on mitochondrial processes related to alteration in oxidative capacity in the liver. The differential effects elicited by the two iodothyronines indicate that 3,5-T2, by influencing the kinetic properties of specific mitochondrial respiratory pathways, would promote a rapid response of the organelle, while T3, by enhancing the abundance of respiratory chain component and favoring the organization of respiratory chain complex in supercomplexes, would induce a slower and prolonged response of the organelle.
Differential Effects of 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine and 3,5,3'-Triiodo-L-Thyronine On Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathways in Liver from Hypothyroid Rats / Silvestri, E; Lombardi, A; Coppola, M; Gentile, A; Cioffi, F; Senese, R; Goglia, F; Lanni, A; Moreno, M; de Lange, P. - In: CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY. - ISSN 1015-8987. - 47:6(2018), pp. 2471-2483. [10.1159/000491620]