Levulinic acid (LA) has been recognized by the U.S. Department of Energy as one of the top biomass-derived platform molecules, due to its reactivity and because it can be produced at relatively low cost from lignocellulose waste. Levulinic acid esters may find an application as alternative green solvent, polymer plasticizers and fragrances [1]. LA esterification with alcohols is typically acid-catalyzed by homogeneous catalysts (i.e. sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid). Although this approach remains the most frequently utilized, a variety of heterogeneous acid catalysts have been used since recent times (i.e. zeolites, sulfated metal oxides, silica) [2]. Among the catalyst mentioned, Amberlyst-15 showed a remarkable high yield of ethyl levulinate. This behavior is due to the acidity provided by SO3H functional groups. In the present work, the kinetics of the levulinic acid esterification with ethanol in the presence of Amberlyst-15 was investigated. Experiments were performed by varying different operative conditions, i.e. stirring rate, temperature, catalyst loading and reactants ratio. As an example, the effect of temperature is displayed in Figure 1. Figure 1 – Temperature effect on the levulinic acid conversion. Experiments performed at 600 rpm, levulinic acid/ethanol 5:1 mol/mol, 5bar N2, 2.5wt.% Amberlyst-15. The collected experimental data were interpreted with reliable models taking into account both the chemical and mass transfer phenomena involved in the reaction network, such as external and internal mass-transfer limitations. The mixed PDE/DAE systems given by the mass balance equations, Eq. 1 were solved with advanced numerical techniques. (1) The results can be considered as good starting point for the optimization of continuous reactors.

Levulinic acid esterification kinetics with ethanol in the presence of Amberlyst-15

ROSSANO, CARMELINA;Vincenzo Russo;R. Turco;R. Vitiello;M. Di Serio
2018

Abstract

Levulinic acid (LA) has been recognized by the U.S. Department of Energy as one of the top biomass-derived platform molecules, due to its reactivity and because it can be produced at relatively low cost from lignocellulose waste. Levulinic acid esters may find an application as alternative green solvent, polymer plasticizers and fragrances [1]. LA esterification with alcohols is typically acid-catalyzed by homogeneous catalysts (i.e. sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid). Although this approach remains the most frequently utilized, a variety of heterogeneous acid catalysts have been used since recent times (i.e. zeolites, sulfated metal oxides, silica) [2]. Among the catalyst mentioned, Amberlyst-15 showed a remarkable high yield of ethyl levulinate. This behavior is due to the acidity provided by SO3H functional groups. In the present work, the kinetics of the levulinic acid esterification with ethanol in the presence of Amberlyst-15 was investigated. Experiments were performed by varying different operative conditions, i.e. stirring rate, temperature, catalyst loading and reactants ratio. As an example, the effect of temperature is displayed in Figure 1. Figure 1 – Temperature effect on the levulinic acid conversion. Experiments performed at 600 rpm, levulinic acid/ethanol 5:1 mol/mol, 5bar N2, 2.5wt.% Amberlyst-15. The collected experimental data were interpreted with reliable models taking into account both the chemical and mass transfer phenomena involved in the reaction network, such as external and internal mass-transfer limitations. The mixed PDE/DAE systems given by the mass balance equations, Eq. 1 were solved with advanced numerical techniques. (1) The results can be considered as good starting point for the optimization of continuous reactors.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/739453
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