Cardiovascular toxicities associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been reported in case series but have been underappreciated due to difficulties in diagnosis and non-specific clinical manifestations. ICIs are antibodies that block negative regulators of the T cell immune response, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1). While ICIs have introduced a significant mortality benefit in several cancer types, the augmented immune response has led to a range of immune-related toxicities, including cardiovascular toxicity. ICI-associated myocarditis often presents with arrhythmias, may co-exist with myositis and myasthenia gravis, can be severe, and portends a poor prognosis. In addition, pericardial disease and vasculitis, including temporal arteritis, have been recently described as immune-related toxicities from ICI. This narrative review describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of cardiovascular toxicities of ICI therapy, highlighting recent developments in the field in the past year.

Cardiovascular Toxicities Associated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Tocchetti, Carlo G;
2019

Abstract

Cardiovascular toxicities associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been reported in case series but have been underappreciated due to difficulties in diagnosis and non-specific clinical manifestations. ICIs are antibodies that block negative regulators of the T cell immune response, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), and PD-1 ligand (PD-L1). While ICIs have introduced a significant mortality benefit in several cancer types, the augmented immune response has led to a range of immune-related toxicities, including cardiovascular toxicity. ICI-associated myocarditis often presents with arrhythmias, may co-exist with myositis and myasthenia gravis, can be severe, and portends a poor prognosis. In addition, pericardial disease and vasculitis, including temporal arteritis, have been recently described as immune-related toxicities from ICI. This narrative review describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of cardiovascular toxicities of ICI therapy, highlighting recent developments in the field in the past year.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/739138
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