Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins are potent water-soluble neurotoxins including the parent compound saxitoxin (STX) and a number of its congeners. They are tetrahydropurine derivatives that can be subdivided into three main groups according to substitution of the side chain: carbamoyl-, N-sulfocarbamoyl-, and decarbamoyl-toxins. The carbamoyl derivatives (STX, NEO and GTX1-4) are reported to be the most potent. Due to their accumulation in filter feeding shellfish, PSP toxins can move through the food chain inducing a toxic syndrome in seafood consumers. Symptoms are neurological with rapid onset (30-60 min from ingestion) and include paraesthesia, vertigo, numbness, tingling of the face, tongue, and lip, ataxia, blocking of respiration and even death. Due to the high risk posed to human health by PSP toxins, a multidisciplinary integrated approach based on liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS and MS2) and qPCR-based assay has been used to depict the PSP toxin scenario in the Mediterranean Sea. As the sxtA and the sxtG genes are known as the starting genes of PSP toxin synthesis in dinoflagellates, different populations of the Mediterranean A. minutum from NW Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian and Catalan Seas were grown in culture and analyzed by qPCR in order to obtain the quantification of these genes. In parallel, LC-HRMS2 analyses were performed on the A. minutum cultured strains and revealed for all of them a toxin profile consisting of only GTX1 and GTX4. Toxin production was in the fg/cell range. Concomitantly with a massive bloom of A. minutum and A. catenella that occurred in Spring 2014 along the Syracuse coasts (Sicily, Italy), four seawater samples were collected and analyzed by LC-HRMS and MS2. The analyzed extracts were found to contain a variety of PSP toxins, namely STX, NEO, the gonyautoxins GTX1-4, the N-sulfocarbamoyl derivatives C1/C2, B1 and B2 and the decarbamoyl STX

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning toxins from Mediterranean Alexandrium minutum and A. catenella: toxin profile and sxt gene content

Tartaglione Luciana
;
Dell’Aversano Carmela;Ciminiello Patrizia;
2015

Abstract

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins are potent water-soluble neurotoxins including the parent compound saxitoxin (STX) and a number of its congeners. They are tetrahydropurine derivatives that can be subdivided into three main groups according to substitution of the side chain: carbamoyl-, N-sulfocarbamoyl-, and decarbamoyl-toxins. The carbamoyl derivatives (STX, NEO and GTX1-4) are reported to be the most potent. Due to their accumulation in filter feeding shellfish, PSP toxins can move through the food chain inducing a toxic syndrome in seafood consumers. Symptoms are neurological with rapid onset (30-60 min from ingestion) and include paraesthesia, vertigo, numbness, tingling of the face, tongue, and lip, ataxia, blocking of respiration and even death. Due to the high risk posed to human health by PSP toxins, a multidisciplinary integrated approach based on liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS and MS2) and qPCR-based assay has been used to depict the PSP toxin scenario in the Mediterranean Sea. As the sxtA and the sxtG genes are known as the starting genes of PSP toxin synthesis in dinoflagellates, different populations of the Mediterranean A. minutum from NW Adriatic, Ionian, Tyrrhenian and Catalan Seas were grown in culture and analyzed by qPCR in order to obtain the quantification of these genes. In parallel, LC-HRMS2 analyses were performed on the A. minutum cultured strains and revealed for all of them a toxin profile consisting of only GTX1 and GTX4. Toxin production was in the fg/cell range. Concomitantly with a massive bloom of A. minutum and A. catenella that occurred in Spring 2014 along the Syracuse coasts (Sicily, Italy), four seawater samples were collected and analyzed by LC-HRMS and MS2. The analyzed extracts were found to contain a variety of PSP toxins, namely STX, NEO, the gonyautoxins GTX1-4, the N-sulfocarbamoyl derivatives C1/C2, B1 and B2 and the decarbamoyl STX
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/737426
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact