BACKGROUND: The accumulation of p-cresol, a metabolic product of aromatic amino acids generated by intestinal microbiome, increases the cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies to reduce plasma p-cresol levels are highly demanded. It has been reported that the phosphate binder sevelamer (SEV) sequesters p-cresol in vitro, while in vivo studies on dialysis patients showed controversial results. Aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of SEV on p-cresol levels in non-dialysis CKD patients. METHODS: This was a single-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial (Registration number NCT02199444) carried on 69 CKD patients (stage 3-5, not on dialysis), randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either SEV or placebo for 3 months. Total p-cresol serum levels were evaluated at baseline (T0), and 1 (T1) and 3 months (T3) after treatment start. The primary end-point was to evaluate the effect of SEV on p-cresol levels. RESULTS: Compared to baseline (T0, 7.4 ± 2.7 mg/mL), p-cresol mean concentration was significantly reduced in SEV patients after one (- 2.06 mg/mL, 95% CI - 2.62 to - 1.50 mg/mL; p < 0.001) and 3 months of treatment (- 3.97 mg/mL, 95% CI - 4.53 to - 3.41 mg/mL; p < 0.001); no change of plasma p-cresol concentration was recorded in placebo-treated patients. Moreover, P and LDL values were reduced after 3 months of treatment by SEV but not placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study represents the first evidence that SEV is effective in reducing p-cresol levels in CKD patients in conservative treatment, and confirms its beneficial effects on inflammation and lipid pattern.

Plasma p-cresol lowering effect of sevelamer in non-dialysis CKD patients: evidence from a randomized controlled trial

Riccio, Eleonora
;
Sabbatini, Massimo;Bruzzese, Dario;Grumetto, Lucia;Marchetiello, Cristina;AMICONE, MARIA;Andreucci, Michele;Guida, Bruna;Russo, Giacomo;Pisani, Antonio
2018

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The accumulation of p-cresol, a metabolic product of aromatic amino acids generated by intestinal microbiome, increases the cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies to reduce plasma p-cresol levels are highly demanded. It has been reported that the phosphate binder sevelamer (SEV) sequesters p-cresol in vitro, while in vivo studies on dialysis patients showed controversial results. Aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of SEV on p-cresol levels in non-dialysis CKD patients. METHODS: This was a single-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial (Registration number NCT02199444) carried on 69 CKD patients (stage 3-5, not on dialysis), randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either SEV or placebo for 3 months. Total p-cresol serum levels were evaluated at baseline (T0), and 1 (T1) and 3 months (T3) after treatment start. The primary end-point was to evaluate the effect of SEV on p-cresol levels. RESULTS: Compared to baseline (T0, 7.4 ± 2.7 mg/mL), p-cresol mean concentration was significantly reduced in SEV patients after one (- 2.06 mg/mL, 95% CI - 2.62 to - 1.50 mg/mL; p < 0.001) and 3 months of treatment (- 3.97 mg/mL, 95% CI - 4.53 to - 3.41 mg/mL; p < 0.001); no change of plasma p-cresol concentration was recorded in placebo-treated patients. Moreover, P and LDL values were reduced after 3 months of treatment by SEV but not placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our study represents the first evidence that SEV is effective in reducing p-cresol levels in CKD patients in conservative treatment, and confirms its beneficial effects on inflammation and lipid pattern.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/705382
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