AIMS: To identify predictors of asymptomatic radiation-induced abdominal atherosclerosis in patients treated with radiotherapy and evaluated by abdominal vascular ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two testicular classic seminoma patients (median age 34 years, range 16-56) undergoing radical inguinal orchiectomy were analysed. Twenty-six patients underwent post-surgery radiotherapy (median total dose 25 Gy, range 25-43), two of them also received chemotherapy (CHT) and 16 patients were treated with surgery alone or by surgery followed by CHT (control group). The presence of stenosis in an abdominal vessel and renal resistive index (RRI), evaluated by echo-colour Doppler (ECD), were considered as indicators of late vascular damage. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare groups. For the radiotherapy group, near maximum (D2%) and mean dose (Dmean) metrics of critical structures (abdominal arteries and renal hila) were extracted from retrievable dose maps (18 of 26 radiotherapy patients). To evaluate clinical and dosimetric factors associated with vascular damage, univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. The impact of dose to arteries, evaluated as separate subvolumes, was analysed comparing the stenotic arteries with normal ones by logistic regression. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the test accuracy. RESULTS: In the radiotherapy group there was a significantly different incidence of stenosis (31% versus 0%, P = 0.016) and a higher median average RRI (0.63 versus 0.60, P = 0.032) compared with the control group. The median time intervals between treatment and ECD were 64 months (range 12-120) and 48 months (range 12-168) in the radiotherapy and control groups (P = 0.399), respectively. A younger age at radiotherapy was the only clinical risk factor for stenosis (P = 0.006). Artery Dmean was significantly associated with stenosis (P = 0.008), with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.26) and an AUC of 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.77-0.91). Renal hilum D2% was correlated with RRI (Rs = 0.406, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Late vascular damage represents a potential effect of abdominal radiotherapy, even at a moderate dose. Younger age at irradiation, artery and renal hila dose metrics are associated with increased risk. Ultrasound-based follow-up may allow for non-invasive early detection of asymptomatic radiation-induced damage, helping to prevent severe vascular events.

Predictors of Asymptomatic Radiation-induced Abdominal Atherosclerosis

CELLA, LAURA;ROMANELLI, PAOLA;CONSON, MANUEL;D'Avino, Vittoria;OTTAVIANO, MARGARET;Palmieri, G;PACELLI, ROBERTO;Mancini, M.
2017

Abstract

AIMS: To identify predictors of asymptomatic radiation-induced abdominal atherosclerosis in patients treated with radiotherapy and evaluated by abdominal vascular ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two testicular classic seminoma patients (median age 34 years, range 16-56) undergoing radical inguinal orchiectomy were analysed. Twenty-six patients underwent post-surgery radiotherapy (median total dose 25 Gy, range 25-43), two of them also received chemotherapy (CHT) and 16 patients were treated with surgery alone or by surgery followed by CHT (control group). The presence of stenosis in an abdominal vessel and renal resistive index (RRI), evaluated by echo-colour Doppler (ECD), were considered as indicators of late vascular damage. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare groups. For the radiotherapy group, near maximum (D2%) and mean dose (Dmean) metrics of critical structures (abdominal arteries and renal hila) were extracted from retrievable dose maps (18 of 26 radiotherapy patients). To evaluate clinical and dosimetric factors associated with vascular damage, univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. The impact of dose to arteries, evaluated as separate subvolumes, was analysed comparing the stenotic arteries with normal ones by logistic regression. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the test accuracy. RESULTS: In the radiotherapy group there was a significantly different incidence of stenosis (31% versus 0%, P = 0.016) and a higher median average RRI (0.63 versus 0.60, P = 0.032) compared with the control group. The median time intervals between treatment and ECD were 64 months (range 12-120) and 48 months (range 12-168) in the radiotherapy and control groups (P = 0.399), respectively. A younger age at radiotherapy was the only clinical risk factor for stenosis (P = 0.006). Artery Dmean was significantly associated with stenosis (P = 0.008), with an odds ratio of 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.26) and an AUC of 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.77-0.91). Renal hilum D2% was correlated with RRI (Rs = 0.406, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Late vascular damage represents a potential effect of abdominal radiotherapy, even at a moderate dose. Younger age at irradiation, artery and renal hila dose metrics are associated with increased risk. Ultrasound-based follow-up may allow for non-invasive early detection of asymptomatic radiation-induced damage, helping to prevent severe vascular events.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/703620
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