Exposing a glassy polymer to a fluid phase (in gaseous or liquid state) containing a low molecular weight compound results in the sorption of the latter within the polymer, inducing, among other effects, the plasticization of the material which also promotes a change in the glass transition temperature. The amount of sorbed penetrant is often related in a complex fashion to the temperature and pressure of the fluid, thus determining that the locus of glass transition, when represented in pressure−temperature coordinates, may display as well rather complex patterns. This is an issue of particular importance in several applications of glassy polymers. In particular, we investigated the behavior of polystyrene in contact with toluene vapor by performing several modes of dynamic sorption experiments, in which the rate of change of the temperature of the system and/or of the pressure of the vapor phase are controlled with high accuracy, with the aim of creating a map of rubbery and glassy states of the polymer as a function of temperature and pressure of the toluene vapor. Isothermal tests were performed by changing the pressure at a controlled rate, isobaric tests were performed by changing the temperature at a controlled rate, and isoactivity tests were performed by concurrently changing, in a proper way, both temperature and pressure. A relevant feature resulting from these experiments is the presence of a discontinuity in the slope of the mass of toluene sorbed within polystyrene reported as a function of temperature and/or pressure. This discontinuity has been interpreted as the indication of the occurrence of a glass transition. The elaboration of the experimental results allowed identification of the pressure/temperature conditions at which rubbery or glassy states of the polymer mixture are established. Quite interestingly, the system displays the so- called “retrograde vitrification” phenomenon, which consists of the occurrence of a rubbery-to-glassy state transition as the temperature increases at a fixed pressure. The whole set of results has been successfully interpreted on the basis of thermodynamics of II order transitions accounting for the fact that experimental evidence of such transitions is significantly affected by the kinetics of polymer relaxation.

Analysis of a Polystyrene-Toluene System through "dynamic" Sorption Tests: Glass Transitions and Retrograde Vitrification / Pierleoni, Davide; Minelli, Matteo; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Loianno, Valerio; Bonavolontà, Francesco; Doghieri, Ferruccio. - In: JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. B, CONDENSED MATTER, MATERIALS, SURFACES, INTERFACES & BIOPHYSICAL. - ISSN 1520-6106. - 121:42(2017), pp. 9969-9981. [10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b08722]

Analysis of a Polystyrene-Toluene System through "dynamic" Sorption Tests: Glass Transitions and Retrograde Vitrification

Scherillo, Giuseppe;Mensitieri, Giuseppe
;
LOIANNO, VALERIO;Bonavolontà, Francesco;
2017

Abstract

Exposing a glassy polymer to a fluid phase (in gaseous or liquid state) containing a low molecular weight compound results in the sorption of the latter within the polymer, inducing, among other effects, the plasticization of the material which also promotes a change in the glass transition temperature. The amount of sorbed penetrant is often related in a complex fashion to the temperature and pressure of the fluid, thus determining that the locus of glass transition, when represented in pressure−temperature coordinates, may display as well rather complex patterns. This is an issue of particular importance in several applications of glassy polymers. In particular, we investigated the behavior of polystyrene in contact with toluene vapor by performing several modes of dynamic sorption experiments, in which the rate of change of the temperature of the system and/or of the pressure of the vapor phase are controlled with high accuracy, with the aim of creating a map of rubbery and glassy states of the polymer as a function of temperature and pressure of the toluene vapor. Isothermal tests were performed by changing the pressure at a controlled rate, isobaric tests were performed by changing the temperature at a controlled rate, and isoactivity tests were performed by concurrently changing, in a proper way, both temperature and pressure. A relevant feature resulting from these experiments is the presence of a discontinuity in the slope of the mass of toluene sorbed within polystyrene reported as a function of temperature and/or pressure. This discontinuity has been interpreted as the indication of the occurrence of a glass transition. The elaboration of the experimental results allowed identification of the pressure/temperature conditions at which rubbery or glassy states of the polymer mixture are established. Quite interestingly, the system displays the so- called “retrograde vitrification” phenomenon, which consists of the occurrence of a rubbery-to-glassy state transition as the temperature increases at a fixed pressure. The whole set of results has been successfully interpreted on the basis of thermodynamics of II order transitions accounting for the fact that experimental evidence of such transitions is significantly affected by the kinetics of polymer relaxation.
2017
Analysis of a Polystyrene-Toluene System through "dynamic" Sorption Tests: Glass Transitions and Retrograde Vitrification / Pierleoni, Davide; Minelli, Matteo; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Loianno, Valerio; Bonavolontà, Francesco; Doghieri, Ferruccio. - In: JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. B, CONDENSED MATTER, MATERIALS, SURFACES, INTERFACES & BIOPHYSICAL. - ISSN 1520-6106. - 121:42(2017), pp. 9969-9981. [10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b08722]
Analysis of a Polystyrene-Toluene System through "dynamic" Sorption Tests: Glass Transitions and Retrograde Vitrification / Pierleoni, Davide; Minelli, Matteo; Scherillo, Giuseppe; Mensitieri, Giuseppe; Loianno, Valerio; Bonavolontà, Francesco; Doghieri, Ferruccio. - In: JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY. B, CONDENSED MATTER, MATERIALS, SURFACES, INTERFACES & BIOPHYSICAL. - ISSN 1520-6106. - 121:42(2017), pp. 9969-9981. [10.1021/acs.jpcb.7b08722]
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
published.acs.jpcb.7b08722.pdf

non disponibili

Tipologia: Documento in Post-print
Licenza: Accesso privato/ristretto
Dimensione 1.48 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.48 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/698354
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 17
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 16
social impact