Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of bile acids synthesis and lipid accumulation caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 sterol 27-hydroxylase enzyme encoded by CYP27A1. Pathogenic variants in CYP27A1 cause elevated cholestanol levels in the body, which leads to a variable clinical presentation that often includes cataracts, intellectual disability, neurological features, tendon xanthomas, and chronic diarrhea. Herein we describe the cases of two unrelated adult CTX patients. Case 1 is a patient with neurological dysfunction, including moderate intellectual disability, cataract of right eye, and xanthomas; Case 2 is a patient with tendon xanthomas without neurological symptoms. Plasma sterols profile obtained from both cases showed higher levels of cholestanol and cholesterol biosynthetic precursors compared to unaffected subjects. Case 1 and Case 2 were homozygous for the c.1263 + 5G > T (p.Leu396Profs29X) and c.1435C > G (p.Arg479Gly) pathogenic variants, respectively, in the CYP27A1 gene. Interestingly, for the first time, Case 2 variant has been identified in a homozygous state. Our results highlight that the sterol profile and genetic analyses are essential to make the diagnosis of CTX and to exclude other dyslipidemias.
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