Memory CD8+ T cells generated by spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection rapidly control secondary infections and reduce the risk of virus persistence. Here, CD8+ T-cell immunity and response to reinfection were assessed in a chimpanzee cured of an earlier chronic infection with an interferon (IFN)-free antiviral regimen. CD8+ T cells expanded from liver immediately before and 2 years after cure of chronic infection with two direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) targeted epitopes in the E2, nonstructural (NS)5a, and NS5b proteins. A second infection to assess CD8+ T-cell responsiveness resulted in rapid suppression of HCV replication by week 2, but viremia rebounded 3 weeks later and the infection persisted. The E2, NS5a, and NS5b proteins remained dominant CD8+ T-cell targets after reinfection. Resurgent HCV replication was temporally associated with mutational escape of NS5a and NS5b class I epitopes that had also mutated during the first chronic infection. Two epitopes in E2 remained intact throughout both persistent infections. Intrahepatic CD8+ T cells targeting intact and escape-prone epitopes differed in expression of phenotypic markers of functional exhaustion 2 years after successful DAA therapy and in the capacity to expand in liver upon reinfection.

T-cell immunity and hepatitis C virus reinfection after cure of chronic hepatitis C with an interferon-free antiviral regimen in a chimpanzee

NICOSIA, Alfredo;
2014

Abstract

Memory CD8+ T cells generated by spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection rapidly control secondary infections and reduce the risk of virus persistence. Here, CD8+ T-cell immunity and response to reinfection were assessed in a chimpanzee cured of an earlier chronic infection with an interferon (IFN)-free antiviral regimen. CD8+ T cells expanded from liver immediately before and 2 years after cure of chronic infection with two direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) targeted epitopes in the E2, nonstructural (NS)5a, and NS5b proteins. A second infection to assess CD8+ T-cell responsiveness resulted in rapid suppression of HCV replication by week 2, but viremia rebounded 3 weeks later and the infection persisted. The E2, NS5a, and NS5b proteins remained dominant CD8+ T-cell targets after reinfection. Resurgent HCV replication was temporally associated with mutational escape of NS5a and NS5b class I epitopes that had also mutated during the first chronic infection. Two epitopes in E2 remained intact throughout both persistent infections. Intrahepatic CD8+ T cells targeting intact and escape-prone epitopes differed in expression of phenotypic markers of functional exhaustion 2 years after successful DAA therapy and in the capacity to expand in liver upon reinfection.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/621564
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 55
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 56
social impact