In chemotherapy a fine balance between therapeutic and toxic effects needs to be found for each patient, adapting standard combination protocols each time. Nanotherapeutics has been introduced into clinical practice for treating tumors with the aim of improving the therapeutic outcome of conventional therapies and of alleviating their toxicity and overcoming multidrug resistance.Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved, minimally invasive procedure emerging in cancer treatment. It involves the administration of a photosensitizer (PS) which, under light irradiation and in the presence of molecular oxygen, produces cytotoxic species. Unfortunately, most PSs lack specificity for tumor cells and are poorly soluble in aqueous media, where they can form aggregates with low photoactivity. Nanotechnological approaches in PDT (nanoPDT) can offer a valid option to deliver PSs in the body and to solve at least some of these issues. Currently, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are emerging as nanoPDT system because their features (size, surface properties, and release rate) can be readily manipulated by selecting appropriate materials in a vast range of possible candidates commercially available and by synthesizing novel tailor-made materials. Delivery of PSs through NPs offers a great opportunity to overcome PDT drawbacks based on the concept that a nanocarrier can drive therapeutic concentrations of PS to the tumor cells without generating any harmful effect in non-target tissues. Furthermore, carriers for nanoPDT can surmount solubility issues and the tendency of PS to aggregate, which can severely affect photophysical, chemical, and biological properties. Finally, multimodal NPs carrying different drugs/bioactive species with complementary mechanisms of cancer cell killing and incorporating an imaging agent can be developed.In the following, we describe the principles of PDT use in cancer and the pillars of rational design of nanoPDT carriers dictated by tumor and PS features. Then we illustrate the main nanoPDT systems demonstrating potential in preclinical models together with emerging concepts for their advanced design.

Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Photodynamic Therapy / Conte, Claudia; Maiolino, Sara; Pellosi, Diogo Silva; Miro, Agnese; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana. - In: TOPICS IN CURRENT CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 2365-0869. - 370:(2016), pp. 61-112. [10.1007/978-3-319-22942-3_3]

Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Photodynamic Therapy

CONTE, CLAUDIA
Primo
;
MAIOLINO, SARA;MIRO, AGNESE;UNGARO, FRANCESCA
Penultimo
;
QUAGLIA, FABIANA
Ultimo
2016

Abstract

In chemotherapy a fine balance between therapeutic and toxic effects needs to be found for each patient, adapting standard combination protocols each time. Nanotherapeutics has been introduced into clinical practice for treating tumors with the aim of improving the therapeutic outcome of conventional therapies and of alleviating their toxicity and overcoming multidrug resistance.Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved, minimally invasive procedure emerging in cancer treatment. It involves the administration of a photosensitizer (PS) which, under light irradiation and in the presence of molecular oxygen, produces cytotoxic species. Unfortunately, most PSs lack specificity for tumor cells and are poorly soluble in aqueous media, where they can form aggregates with low photoactivity. Nanotechnological approaches in PDT (nanoPDT) can offer a valid option to deliver PSs in the body and to solve at least some of these issues. Currently, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are emerging as nanoPDT system because their features (size, surface properties, and release rate) can be readily manipulated by selecting appropriate materials in a vast range of possible candidates commercially available and by synthesizing novel tailor-made materials. Delivery of PSs through NPs offers a great opportunity to overcome PDT drawbacks based on the concept that a nanocarrier can drive therapeutic concentrations of PS to the tumor cells without generating any harmful effect in non-target tissues. Furthermore, carriers for nanoPDT can surmount solubility issues and the tendency of PS to aggregate, which can severely affect photophysical, chemical, and biological properties. Finally, multimodal NPs carrying different drugs/bioactive species with complementary mechanisms of cancer cell killing and incorporating an imaging agent can be developed.In the following, we describe the principles of PDT use in cancer and the pillars of rational design of nanoPDT carriers dictated by tumor and PS features. Then we illustrate the main nanoPDT systems demonstrating potential in preclinical models together with emerging concepts for their advanced design.
2016
Polymeric Nanoparticles for Cancer Photodynamic Therapy / Conte, Claudia; Maiolino, Sara; Pellosi, Diogo Silva; Miro, Agnese; Ungaro, Francesca; Quaglia, Fabiana. - In: TOPICS IN CURRENT CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 2365-0869. - 370:(2016), pp. 61-112. [10.1007/978-3-319-22942-3_3]
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11588/613119
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 45
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 39
social impact