In addition to the well-known involvement of macrophages and neutrophils, other cell types have been recently reported to substantially contribute to the onset and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Enteric glial cells (EGC) are the equivalent cell type of astrocyte in the central nervous system (CNS) and share with them many neurotrophic and neuro-immunomodulatory properties. This short review highlights the role of EGC in IBD, describing the role played by these cells in the maintenance of gut homeostasis, and their modulation of enteric neuronal activities. In pathological conditions, EGC have been reported to trigger and support bowel inflammation through the specific over-secretion of S100B protein, a pivotal neurotrophic factor able to induce chronic inflammatory changes in gut mucosa. New pharmacological tools that may improve the current therapeutic strategies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), lowering side effects (i.e. corticosteroids) and costs (i.e. anti-TNFα monoclonal antibodies) represent a very important challenge for gastroenterologists and pharmacologists. Novel drugs capable to modulate enteric glia reactivity, limiting the pro-inflammatory release of S100B, may thus represent a significant innovation in the field of pharmacological interventions for inflammatory bowel diseases.

Enteric glia: A new player in inflammatory bowel diseases

PESCE, MARCELLA;D'ALESSANDRO, ALESSANDRA;CUOMO, ROSARIO;SARNELLI, GIOVANNI;
2015

Abstract

In addition to the well-known involvement of macrophages and neutrophils, other cell types have been recently reported to substantially contribute to the onset and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Enteric glial cells (EGC) are the equivalent cell type of astrocyte in the central nervous system (CNS) and share with them many neurotrophic and neuro-immunomodulatory properties. This short review highlights the role of EGC in IBD, describing the role played by these cells in the maintenance of gut homeostasis, and their modulation of enteric neuronal activities. In pathological conditions, EGC have been reported to trigger and support bowel inflammation through the specific over-secretion of S100B protein, a pivotal neurotrophic factor able to induce chronic inflammatory changes in gut mucosa. New pharmacological tools that may improve the current therapeutic strategies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), lowering side effects (i.e. corticosteroids) and costs (i.e. anti-TNFα monoclonal antibodies) represent a very important challenge for gastroenterologists and pharmacologists. Novel drugs capable to modulate enteric glia reactivity, limiting the pro-inflammatory release of S100B, may thus represent a significant innovation in the field of pharmacological interventions for inflammatory bowel diseases.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11588/612234
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